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Table 13.  Percentage of public middle schools reporting that specified disciplinary actions were allowable, by selected school characteristics: School year 2005–06

Percentage of schools allowing specific disciplinary action
School characteristic Referral to school counselor Assigned to a program to reduce disciplinary problems during school hours Assigned to a program to reduce disciplinary problems outside of school hours Kept off school bus due to misbehavior Corporal punishment   Put on school probation Detention and/or Saturday school Loss of student privileges Require participation in community service
All public schools  98 64 46 94 15   71 89 96 41  
                       
Enrollment size                       
Less than 300  97 55 38 91 22   69 87 92 33  
300–499  98 62 42 96 22   67 81 97 32  
500–999  99 67 50 95 13   73 92 97 47  
1,000 or more  99 68 48 92 5 ! 72 91 99 41  
                       
Urbanicity                       
City  99 66 49 88 7   74 90 96 42  
Urban fringe  98 63 50 94 9   73 94 97 47  
Town  97 61 42 99 27   69 85 98 33  
Rural  99 64 40 97 26   67 82 94 33  
                       
Crime level where students live1                       
High  97 68 51 83 10 ! 71 84 95 52  
Moderate  99 66 49 92 19   72 89 98 38  
Low  98 60 43 96 13   69 88 96 39  
Mixed  99 71 51 95 20   78 91 95 44  
                       
Percent minority enrollment2                       
Less than 5 percent  99 58 47 97 14   65 90 97 34  
5 to less than 20 percent  98 64 39 99 10   70 92 97 41  
20 to less than 50 percent  99 64 47 96 18   73 88 96 41  
50 percent or more  98 68 51 87 15   75 87 94 45  
                       
Percent of students
eligible for free or
reduced-price lunch 
                     
0–20 percent  98 56 45 96 2 ! 70 93 97 48  
21–50 percent  99 70 45 97 16   70 91 97 38  
More than 50 percent  98 63 47 91 23   73 84 94 38  
                       
Percent of students below 15th
percentile on standardized tests 
                     
0–5 percent  99 62 43 95 17   72 89 97 40  
6–15 percent  98 62 45 95 14   70 88 95 40  
More than 15 percent  98 69 50 92 15   72 90 98 42  
                       
Percent of students likely
to attend college 
                     
0–35 percent  98 59 46 93 21   71 83 94 40  
36–60 percent  98 69 48 96 15   71 91 98 37  
More than 60 percent  99 63 44 94 11   71 91 96 44  
                       
Percent of students who consider
academic achievement important 
                     
0–25 percent  96 68 46 86 15 ! 65 92 90 38  
26–50 percent  98 56 48 94 19   73 86 96 36  
51–75 percent  98 66 45 96 15   74 86 96 46  
More than 75 percent  99 67 45 95 13   68 92 97 40  
                       
Percent male enrollment                       
0–44 percent  95 49 38 84 16 ! 60 74 78 42  
45–55 percent  99 66 47 95 15   71 90 98 40  
More than 55 percent  95 58 43 98 18 ! 80 81 94 43  
                       
Student-to-FTE ratio3                       
Less than 12 students  99 65 45 94 17   71 89 96 40  
12–16 students  99 63 45 96 15   71 87 96 41  
More than 16 students  95 63 51 89 10   73 91 97 41  
                       
Number of classroom changes4                       
0–3 changes  97 61 38 84 13 ! 61 89 94 30 !
4–6 changes  98 66 49 94 13   74 87 96 43  
More than 6 changes  98 63 45 95 17   70 90 96 40  
                       
Regular use of law enforcement5                       
Regular use  99 69 49 94 15   75 90 97 44  
No regular use  97 56 41 95 16   64 86 95 35  
                       
Number of serious
discipline problems6 
                     
No problems  98 60 44 95 19   68 88 96 39  
1 problem  100 67 43 95 14   73 86 95 41  
2 problems  96 67 51 92 12   70 91 99 44  
3 or more problems  99 67 51 91 9   76 92 96 42  
                       
Transfers as a percentage
of enrollment7 
                     
Less than 6 percent  99 59 42 90 7 ! 64 90 94 42  
6 to less than 11 percent  98 63 53 95 16   70 91 96 46  
11 to less than 21 percent  98 66 42 94 16   73 87 96 39  
21 percent or more  99 66 49 97 19   74 88 97 38  
                       
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions8 
                     
No disruptions  98 63 45 95 16   70 89 96 40  
Any disruptions  98 77 59 91 12 ! 78 89 97 47  
                       
Percent of students
absent on a daily basis 
                     
0–2 percent  95 58 44 95   67 91 94 45  
3–5 percent  99 66 46 95 17   72 89 96 41  
6–10 percent  98 61 45 94 15   72 88 96 39  
More than 10 percent  98 69 56 82   60 82 93 36  
                       
Prevalence of violent incidents9                       
No violent incidents  100 61 40 95 12 ! 58 86 94 28  
Any violent incidents  98 64 46 94 15   72 89 96 41  
! Interpret data with caution. The standard error for this estimate is from 30 percent to 50 percent of the estimate’s value.
‡ Reporting standards not met. The standard error for this estimate is equal to 50 percent or more of the estimate's value.
1 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
2 Responding schools that did not have race/ethnicity on the sampling frame (2 percent of schools) are excluded from the base.
3 Student-to-FTE ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
4 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
5 Respondents were asked, "During the 2005–2006 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school at least once a week?"
6 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
7 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
8 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
9 Violent incidents include rape or attempted rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2005–06 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2006.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education