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Table 8.  Number and percentage of public middle schools reporting incidents of hate crime, gang-related crime, and gang-related hate crime at school, the number of incidents reported, and the rate of incidents per 1,000 students, by selected school characteristics: School year 2005–06

  Hate crime1    Gang-related crime2    Gang-related hate crime1,2,3   
School characteristic  Num-
ber of schools
  Per-
cent of schools
  Num-
ber of incidents
  Rate per 1,000 students   Num-
ber of schools
  Per-
cent of schools
  Num-
ber of incidents
  Rate per 1,000 students   Num-
ber of schools
  Per-
cent of schools
  Num-
ber of incidents
  Rate per 1,000 students  
All public schools  970   6   3,670 ! #   1,660   11   9,080   1   290   2   1,350 ! #  
                                                 
Enrollment size                                                 
Less than 300          170 ! 6 !     #   #   #   #  
300–499  180 ! 6 ! 610 ! #   190   6   600 ! #   #   #   #   #  
500–999  520   7   1,190   #   920   13   4,790   1   160 ! 2 ! 300 ! #  
1,000 or more  210   9   710 ! #   370   16   2,650   1   140   6      
                                                 
Urbanicity                                                 
City  400   11   1,260   #   920   26   5,740   2   190   5   1,180 ! #  
Urban fringe  380   7   1,050   #   430   7   2,340   1   80 ! 1 !    
Town  90 ! 4 ! 120 ! #   190   9   470 ! #          
Rural  100 ! 2 !     120 ! 3 !     #   #   #   #  
                                                 
Crime level where
students live4 
                                               
High  160 ! 13 ! 720 ! 1 ! 370   32   2,720 ! 4   110 ! 9 ! 420 ! 1 !
Moderate  230   8   480 ! #   740   25   4,410   2   100 ! 3 !    
Low  450   5       280   3   750 ! #   60 ! 1 !    
Mixed  130 ! 5 !     260   10   1,210 ! 1 !        
                                                 
Percent minority
enrollment5 
                                               
Less than 5 percent          #   #   #   #          
5 to less than 20 percent  240   6   750 ! #   80 ! 2 ! 190 ! #          
20 to less than 50 percent  250   7   570   #   330   9   1,000   #          
50 percent or more  380   8   1,100 ! #   1,240   27   7,380   2   210   5   740 ! #  
                                                 
Percent of students
eligible for free or
reduced-price lunch 
                                               
0–20 percent  220   6   500 ! #   110 ! 3 ! 330 ! #          
21–50 percent  400   7       370   7   1,180   #          
More than 50 percent  350   6   1,020 ! #   1,170   19   7,570   2   200   3   1,180 ! #  
                                                 
Percent of students
below 15th percentile on
standardized tests 
                                               
0–5 percent  300   6       230   5   1,070 ! #   70 ! 1 !    
6–15 percent  330   5   700   #   770   12   3,710   1   120 ! 2 !    
More than 15 percent  340   8   1,120 ! #   650   15   4,310   1   110 ! 2 !    
                                                 
Percent of students likely
to attend college 
                                               
0–35 percent  350   8   930 ! #   840   19   5,060   2   100 ! 2 !    
36–60 percent  280   6       470   9   2,790   1   120 ! 2 !    
More than 60 percent  340   6   750   #   350   6   1,240 ! #          
                                                 
Percent of students who
consider academic
achievement important 
                                               
0–25 percent  130 ! 9 ! 220 ! #   360   26   2,140 ! 2 ! 60 ! 4 !    
26–50 percent  230 ! 6 !     540   14   2,550 ! 1 !        
51–75 percent  250   5   910 ! #   420   9   2,870   1   70 ! 2 !    
More than 75 percent  350   6   760   #   340   6   1,530   #   110 ! 2 ! 410 ! #  
                                                 
Percent male enrollment                                                 
0–44 percent          160 ! 17 !            
45–55 percent  840   6   3,400 ! #   1,360   10   7,230   1   260   2   1,180 ! #  
More than 55 percent  80 ! 7 !     140 ! 11 !            
                                                 
Student-to-FTE ratio6                                                 
Less than 12 students  360   5   1,090   #   640   9   2,680   1          
12–16 students  400   7       590   10   3,710 ! 1 ! 110 ! 2 ! 280 ! #  
More than 16 students  200 ! 9 ! 380 ! #   420   19   2,690   1   100 ! 5 !    
                                                 
Number of classroom
changes7 
                                               
0–3 changes                         
4–6 changes  350   6   1,010 ! #   720   12   3,120   1   120 ! 2 ! 490 ! #  
More than 6 changes  570   6   2,620 ! #   860   9   5,420   1   160 ! 2 !    
                                                 
Regular use of law
enforcement8 
                                               
Regular use  640   6   1,790   #   1,380   14   3,120   1   240   2   1,170 ! #  
No regular use  330   6       280   5   5,420 ! #   50 ! 1 !    
                                                 
Number of serious
discipline problems9 
                                               
No problems  290   4   680 ! #   520   7   2,870 ! 1 ! 80 ! 1 ! 120 ! #  
1 problem  200 ! 5       220   5   780 ! #          
2 problems  110 ! 6 !     260   14   1,270 ! 1 !        
3 or more problems  360   14   1,260   1   650   26   4,170   2   150 ! 6 !    
                                                 
Transfers as a percentage
of enrollment10 
                                               
Less than 6 percent  210 ! 7 ! 330 ! #   150 ! 5 !            
6 to less than 11 percent  150 ! 5 ! 620 ! #   200 ! 7   540 ! #          
11 to less than 21 percent  230   5   690   #   600   12   2,700   1   100 ! 2 ! 320 ! #  
21 percent or more  370   8       710   15   4,340   1   130 ! 3 !    
                                                 
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions11 
                                               
No disruptions  800   6   3,120 ! #   1,470   10   8,260   1   230   2   1,140 ! #  
Any disruptions  160   11   550 ! 1 ! 190   13   830 ! 1 ! 60 ! 4 !    
                                                 
Percent of students
absent on a daily basis 
                                               
0–2 percent  60 ! 7 !                    
3–5 percent  470   5   1,150   #   670   8   2,030   #   100 ! 1 ! 170 ! #  
6–10 percent  360   7   1,200 ! #   640   12   4,220   1   120 ! 2 ! 510 ! #  
More than 10 percent  80 ! 11 !     280   37   2,700 ! 4   60 !      
# Rounds to zero.
! Interpret data with caution. The standard error for this estimate is from 30 percent to 50 percent of the estimate’s value.
‡ Reporting standards not met. The standard error for this estimate is equal to 50 percent or more of the estimate's value.
1 A hate crime was defined for respondents as "a criminal offense or threat against a person, property, or society that is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender's bias against a race, color, national origin, ethnicity, gender, religion, disability, or sexual orientation."
2 Gang was defined for respondents as "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols, or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior."
3 This item is new to the 2005–06 School Survey on Crime and Safety.
4 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
5 Responding schools that did not have race/ethnicity on the sampling frame (2 percent of schools) are excluded from the base.
6 Student-to-FTE ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
7 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
8 Respondents were asked, "During the 2005–2006 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school at least once a week?"
9 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
10 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
11 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
NOTE: "At school" was defined for respondents to include activities happening in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Reponses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2005–06 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2006.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education