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Table 31.  Percentage of public middle schools reporting that their efforts to reduce or prevent crime at school were limited due to specified non-school-level factors, by selected school characteristics: School year 2003–04


School characteristic Inadequate funds Fear of district or state reprisal Federal, state, or district policies on disciplining special education students1   Other federal policies on discipline and safety Other state or district policies on discipline and safety
All public schools  64 17 70   32 32
             
Enrollment size             
Less than 300  61 12 53   20 18
300–499  67 20 73   36 35
500–999  64 17 72   34 33
1,000 or more  62 21 72   33 35
             
Urbanicity             
City  68 24 76   35 38
Urban fringe  56 14 64   28 27
Town  70 18 77   37 36
Rural  67 15 68   33 30
             
Crime level where students live2             
High  70 35 78   40 42
Moderate  71 27 77   43 46
Low  61 12 66   28 26
Mixed  62 14 69   29 26
             
Percent minority enrollment3             
Less than 5 percent  61 10 61   30 25
5 to 20 percent  60 10 66   24 25
20 to 50 percent  64 20 77   35 33
50 percent or more  68 26 71   36 39
             
Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch             
0–20 percent  50 10 61   21 20
21–50 percent  67 12 70   29 29
More than 50 percent  69 28 75   42 41
             
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests             
0–5 percent  48 10 60   25 22
6–15 percent  67 16 70   31 33
More than 15 percent  71 24 76   39 37
             
Percent of students likely to attend college             
0–35 percent  69 26 75   40 39
36–60 percent  68 17 73   32 32
More than 60 percent  56 10 62   25 25
             
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important             
0–25 percent  72 24 76   45 48
26–50 percent  71 25 78   41 38
51–75 percent  68 17 71   33 32
More than 75 percent  51 10 60   21 21
             
Percent male enrollment             
0–44 percent  62 28 64   38 39
45–55 percent  63 17 71   32 32
More than 55 percent  69 19 64   32 27
             
Student-to-teacher ratio4             
Less than 12 students  62 17 67   29 28
12–16 students  67 20 73   36 36
More than 16 students  62 14 68   31 31
             
Number of classroom changes5             
0–3 changes  63 14 59   37 35
4–6 changes  63 19 68   36 36
More than 6 changes  64 17 72   29 28
             
Regular use of law enforcement6             
Regular use  65 18 72   34 34
No regular use  62 16 66   30 28
             
Number of serious discipline problems7             
No problems  54 12 61   25 23
1 problem  66 12 70   28 27
2 problems  77 28 81   46 47
3 or more problems  75 29 82   44 49
             
Transfers as a percentage of enrollment8             
0 to 6 percent  62 17 62   31 31
6 to 11 percent  59 14 66   31 26
11 to 21 percent  68 20 70   34 33
21 percent or more  64 18 78   32 35
             
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions9             
No disruptions  64 17 69   30 29
Any disruptions  66 22 78   50 54
             
Percent of students absent on a daily basis             
0–2 percent  60 10 72   28 26
3–5 percent  61 17 65   28 27
6–10 percent  69 19 77   38 38
More than 10 percent  63 23 75   48 47
             
Prevalence of violent incidents10             
No violent incidents  58 20 56   24 21
Any violent incidents  64 17 71   33 32
1 A special education student was defined for respondents as "a child with a disability, defined as mental retardation, hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness), serious emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities, and who needs special education and related services and receives these under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)."
2 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
3 These estimates exclude data from Tennessee because schools in this state did not report estimates of student race.
4Student-to-teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
5 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
6 Respondents were asked, "During the 2003–2004 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on a regular basis?"
7 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
8 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
9 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms. Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education