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Table 30.  Percentage of public middle schools reporting that their efforts to reduce or prevent crime at school were limited in a major or minor way due to specified school-level factors, by selected school characteristics: School year 2003–04


School characteristic Lack of or inadequate teacher training in classroom management Lack of or inadequate alternative placements for disruptive students Likelihood of complaints from parents Lack of teacher support for school policies Lack of parental support for school policies Teachers’ fear of student retaliation Fear of litigation Inconsistent application of school policies
All public schools  41 67 30 23 49 18 32 46
                 
Enrollment size                 
Less than 300  38 56 27 15 43 18 29 37
300–499  37 69 28 23 46 19 30 46
500–999  43 67 32 23 51 16 32 48
1,000 or more  46 73 34 31 54 20 36 50
                 
Urbanicity                 
City  55 73 34 37 58 22 36 64
Urban fringe  39 68 32 20 46 16 29 41
Town  39 67 28 20 51 17 35 41
Rural  34 58 26 17 44 17 30 42
                 
Crime level where students live1                 
High  76 74 45 48 72 35 46 74
Moderate  54 74 35 34 66 26 41 60
Low  34 63 26 16 39 12 26 38
Mixed  35 68 32 20 51 18 32 43
                 
Percent minority enrollment2                 
Less than 5 percent  27 61 25 13 37 10 21 34
5 to 20 percent  30 65 25 15 40 13 27 33
20 to 50 percent  42 67 31 23 54 20 38 51
50 percent or more  58 70 37 36 61 24 35 62
                 
Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch                
0–20 percent  30 63 30 14 38 12 26 32
21–50 percent  34 67 27 15 43 16 29 42
More than 50 percent  55 69 34 37 62 23 38 60
                 
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests                 
0–5 percent  30 56 26 17 38 13 28 38
6–15 percent  39 66 29 20 47 16 29 44
More than 15 percent  53 75 36 32 61 24 38 55
                 
Percent of students likely to attend college                 
0–35 percent  53 72 35 33 63 22 36 56
36–60 percent  40 68 29 25 50 16 32 50
More than 60 percent  33 61 28 14 37 15 28 35
                 
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important                 
0–25 percent  57 75 39 37 71 26 41 55
26–50 percent  50 74 34 30 60 22 39 57
51–75 percent  40 68 31 24 46 17 32 48
More than 75 percent  31 57 24 13 36 12 24 35
                 
Percent male enrollment                 
0–44 percent  56 77 30 26 50 26 35 47
45–55 percent  41 66 31 23 49 17 32 46
More than 55 percent  35 63 28 22 54 17 32 54
                 
Student-to-teacher ratio3                 
Less than 12 students  39 64 29 23 48 19 34 44
12–16 students  44 69 32 23 51 18 31 49
More than 16 students  44 69 31 24 47 14 27 46
                 
Number of classroom changes4                 
0–3 changes  40 66 42 18 46 19 34 38
4–6 changes  45 70 30 25 52 16 30 52
More than 6 changes  39 64 30 22 48 19 33 43
                 
Regular use of law enforcement5                 
Regular use  44 68 32 26 52 19 33 50
No regular use  37 64 27 18 44 15 29 40
                 
Number of serious discipline problems6                 
No problems  28 56 23 12 36 11 24 32
1 problem  47 72 30 17 47 14 29 45
2 problems  54 76 43 40 68 26 46 61
3 or more problems  63 81 41 48 71 34 45 74
                 
Transfers as a percentage of enrollment7                 
0 to 6 percent  42 70 29 20 44 16 28 41
6 to 11 percent  39 61 27 20 48 18 34 42
11 to 21 percent  42 71 35 24 51 19 32 50
21 percent or more  42 63 29 28 51 18 32 50
                 
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions8                 
No disruptions  40 66 29 22 47 16 31 44
Any disruptions  52 74 46 31 65 30 36 64
                 
Percent of students absent on a daily basis                 
0–2 percent  26 59 20 11 38 11 22 23
3–5 percent  38 62 30 19 45 16 32 43
6–10 percent  49 76 32 31 58 21 34 57
More than 10 percent  58 66 40 36 60 32 30 47
                 
Prevalence of violent incidents9                 
No violent incidents  24 53 23 13 35 14 27 28
Any violent incidents  43 68 31 24 50 18 32 48
1 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
2 These estimates exclude data from Tennessee because schools in this state did not report estimates of student race.
3 Student-to-teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
4 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
5 Respondents were asked, "During the 2003–2004 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on a regular basis?"
6 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
7 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
8 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
9 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education