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Table 22.  Percentage of public middle schools reporting the use of selected violence prevention program components, by selected school characteristics: School year 2003–04


Percentage of schools using selected violence prevention program components
School characteristic Prevention curriculum, instruction, or training for students1   Behavioral or behavior modification intervention for students Counseling, social work, psychological, or therapeutic activity for students or adults Individual attention, mentoring, tutoring, or coaching of students by students or adults Recreational, enrichment, or leisure activities for students Students’ involvement in resolving student conduct problems2   Programs to promote a sense of community or social integration among students Hotline or tipline for students to report problems
All public schools 88   92 95 93 89 58   81 41
                     
Enrollment size                     
Less than 300  89   89 89 87 85 41   77 23
300–499  88   89 95 92 86 54   73 39
500–999  89   94 96 94 90 62   84 43
1,000 or more  87   94 97 95 92 71   87 56
                     
Urbanicity                     
City  86   94 95 95 89 66   85 48
Urban fringe  90   94 95 92 89 61   82 45
Town  86   89 97 95 87 55   80 35
Rural  89   91 93 91 87 49   76 33
                     
Crime level where students live3                    
High  86   97 100 94 94 59   80 41
Moderate  87   98 96 93 88 64   81 38
Low  88   90 95 92 88 54   80 42
Mixed  90   91 91 94 87 64   85 42
                     
Percent minority enrollment4                     
Less than 5 percent  90   92 95 91 87 51   79 40
5 to 20 percent  88   91 92 91 89 56   84 41
20 to 50 percent  88   93 99 94 88 63   81 43
50 percent or more  87   93 94 94 91 62   79 41
                     
Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch                    
0–20 percent  89   91 95 91 91 60   85 46
21–50 percent  90   94 96 94 89 57   80 38
More than 50 percent  86   93 93 92 87 59   79 41
                     
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests                     
0–5 percent  91   93 95 92 92 55   84 39
6–15 percent  88   91 95 92 87 58   81 44
More than 15 percent  87   94 94 94 89 62   79 39
                     
Percent of students likely to attend college                     
0–35 percent  86   90 93 91 87 58   79 39
36–60 percent  87   94 96 96 88 58   81 42
More than 60 percent  92   93 95 91 90 59   83 42
                     
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important                     
0–25 percent  88   88 92 93 82 53   73 37
26–50 percent  88   93 93 94 89 60   81 42
51–75 percent  84   92 97 91 88 56   79 39
More than 75 percent  93   94 95 93 92 62   86 45
                     
Percent male enrollment                     
0–44 percent  86   93 93 97 94 56   88 46
45–55 percent  88   93 95 93 88 58   80 41
More than 55 percent  89   91 93 89 89 59   84 35
                     
Student-to-teacher ratio5                     
Less than 12 students  89   92 95 92 91 60   82 33
12–16 students  89   93 95 93 87 56   80 47
More than 16 students  86   92 93 93 87 59   81 48
                     
Number of classroom changes6                     
0–3 changes  84   94 92 85 87 49   87 35
4–6 changes  86   92 95 93 88 56   82 41
More than 6 changes  90   93 95 93 89 61   80 42
                     
Regular use of law enforcement7                     
Regular use  89   93 96 93 89 62   82 43
No regular use  87   91 93 91 87 52   79 38
                     
Number of serious discipline problems8                     
No problems  88   89 94 91 86 57   80 37
1 problem  89   97 95 92 89 57   87 42
2 problems  92   96 96 96 92 57   79 49
3 or more problems  85   93 97 95 91 65   80 45
                     
Transfers as a percentage of enrollment9                     
0 to 6 percent  89   96 96 93 89 64   85 39
6 to 11 percent  86   88 95 91 89 57   82 41
11 to 21 percent  90   94 96 94 90 56   80 42
21 percent or more  87   92 93 92 87 58   79 42
                     
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions10                     
No disruptions  89   92 95 92 88 58   81 41
Any disruptions  84   95 96 96 93 62   84 41
                     
Percent of students absent on a daily basis                    
0–2 percent  94   94 99 92 91 66   88 30
3–5 percent  90   93 96 92 89 55   81 41
6–10 percent  86   92 92 94 86 61   81 45
More than 10 percent  83   89 94 96 98 70   76 35
                     
Prevalence of violent incidents11                     
No violent incidents  97   95 95 83 80 62   84 40
Any violent incidents  88   92 95 93 89 58   81 41
1 For example, social skills training.
2 For example, conflict resolution, peer mediation, and student court.
3 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
4 These estimates exclude data from Tennessee because schools in this state did not report estimates of student race.
5 Student-to-teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
6 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
7 Respondents were asked, "During the 2003–2004 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on a regular basis?"
8 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
9 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
10 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
11 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education