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Table 12.  Percentage of public middle schools reporting that removals or transfers for at least the remainder of the school year or suspensions for less than the remainder of the school year were allowable disciplinary actions, by selected school characteristics: School year 2003–04


  Suspension for less than the remainder of the school year
Removal or transfer for at least the remainder of the school year Out-of-school suspension   In-school suspension
School characteristic Removal with nocontinuing school services Transfer tospecialized school1 Transfer to another regular school Removal with tutoring or at-home instruction No curriculum services provided Curriculum services provided No curriculum services provided Curriculum services provided
All public schools  59 80   38 68   77 79   16 82
                       
Enrollment size                       
Less than 300  60 74   27 66   71 67   24 84
300–499  64 77   28 73   76 80   20 81
500–999  59 81   41 72   78 81   13 83
1,000 or more  49 89   52 50   80 82   11 78
                       
Urbanicity                       
City  56 89   55 57   78 76   13 79
Urban fringe  54 80   40 70   75 82   14 79
Town  64 79   23 73   73 82   19 89
Rural  64 73   27 72   81 75   20 85
                       
Crime level where students live2                      
High  57 90   61 62   88 83   20 84
Moderate  60 86   40 68   76 81   11 80
Low  58 76   34 70   75 77   18 83
Mixed  61 83   38 64   78 83   13 83
                       
Percent minority enrollment3                      
Less than 5 percent  65 67   23 77   78 81   17 83
5 to 20 percent  63 80   38 81   74 79   20 82
20 to 50 percent  54 85   37 68   81 84   14 86
50 percent or more  54 85   48 55   76 75   13 79
                       
Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch                      
0–20 percent  55 77   36 70   68 83   19 83
21–50 percent  64 80   34 74   81 82   16 85
More than 50 percent  56 82   42 61   79 74   14 79
                       
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests                      
0–5 percent  55 78   38 72   66 79   19 85
6–15 percent  57 77   32 67   77 78   14 81
More than 15 percent  63 86   45 67   85 81   17 81
                       
Percent of students likely to attend college                      
0–35 percent  61 84   37 65   84 75   16 83
36–60 percent  61 79   39 65   77 80   14 82
More than 60 percent  55 78   37 73   70 83   18 81
                       
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important                      
0–25 percent  62 80   34 70   81 71   22 78
26–50 percent  64 83   37 69   84 80   16 82
51–75 percent  62 80   39 66   82 81   16 82
More than 75 percent  50 79   38 68   66 80   14 84
                       
Percent male enrollment                       
0–44 percent  58 71   36 64   63 79   20 79
45–55 percent  59 81   38 69   77 80   16 82
More than 55 percent  51 78   36 60   82 74   16 86
                       
Student-to-teacher ratio4                      
Less than 12 students  54 80   31 71   73 78   19 82
12–16 students  65 81   38 68   78 79   13 85
More than 16 students  57 78   50 61   83 82   16 77
                       
Number of classroom changes5                      
0–3 changes  60 75   35 61   73 80   29 74
4–6 changes  61 79   39 67   78 80   18 79
More than 6 changes  57 82   37 69   77 79   14 85
                       
Regular use of law enforcement6                      
Regular use  57 82   41 67   79 80   16 82
No regular use  61 77   32 70   74 78   17 83
                       
Number of serious discipline problems7                      
No problems  54 76   33 66   70 77   16 81
1 problem  61 81   41 69   78 81   17 84
2 problems  67 85   38 67   85 78   14 84
3 or more problems  61 88   46 74   86 85   16 82
                       
Transfers as a percentage of enrollment8                      
0 to 6 percent  60 71   36 68   67 78   18 80
6 to 11 percent  60 83   37 68   77 80   21 81
11 to 21 percent  60 80   38 69   78 81   15 85
21 percent or more  56 86   39 66   83 77   11 81
                       
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions9                      
No disruptions 58 80   37 67   76 78   16 82
Any disruptions 63 83   39 75   81 84   15 81
                       
Percent of students absent on a daily basis                      
0–2 percent  46 65   31 60   72 74   12 78
3–5 percent  58 81   36 68   74 77   17 83
6–10 percent  64 82   41 72   82 85   15 83
More than 10 percent  59 84   35 55   84 71   18 72
                       
Prevalence of violent incidents10                      
No violent incidents  57 70   34 66   58 86   22 87
Any violent incidents  59 81   38 68   78 79   16 82
1 Specialized school was defined for respondents as "a school that is specifically for students who were referred for disciplinary reasons. The school may also have students who were referred for other reasons. The school may be at the same location as your school."
2 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
3 These estimates exclude data from Tennessee because schools in this state did not report estimates of student race.
4 Student-to-teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
5 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
6 Respondents were asked, "During the 2003–2004 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on a regular basis?"
7 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
8 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
9 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
10 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education