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Table 31.  Percentage of public middle schools reporting their efforts to reduce or prevent crime were limited by specified school-level characteristics, by selected school characteristics: 1999–2000


School characteristic Lack of or inadequate teacher training in classroom management Lack of or inadequate alternative placements for disruptive students Likelihood of complaints from parents Lack of teacher support for school policies Lack of parental support for school policies Teachers' fear of student reprisal Fear of litigation Inconsistent application of school policies
All public middle schools 52 69 31 22 42 23 41 30
                 
Enrollment size                
Less than 300 43 59 31 17 41 24 38 27
300–499 61 80 33 20 40 25 41 36
500–999 52 70 32 22 44 22 42 29
1,000 or more51 57 25 28 39 23 37 28
                 
Urbanicity                
City 52 64 31 26 43 23 35 30
Urban fringe 54 67 32 22 43 21 44 27
Town 52 72 31 20 42 23 48 36
Rural 50 72 30 19 41 25 37 30
                 
Crime level where students live1                
High 72 78 36 45 54 27 41 40
Moderate 62 74 36 24 46 25 47 33
Low 48 66 30 19 38 22 38 27
Mixed 52 70 28 26 52 23 42 37
                 
Percent minority enrollment1                
0–5 percent 57 79 32 19 37 27 47 33
6–20 percent 45 65 27 15 35 19 34 24
21–50 percent 49 62 35 22 48 22 41 31
More than 50 percent 58 67 33 33 52 25 41 35
                 
Percent of students eligible for free/reduced-price lunch                
0–20 percent 41 64 32 15 31 19 37 25
21–50 percent 56 75 30 22 46 25 43 31
More than 50 percent 58 65 32 28 50 24 41 34
                 
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests                
0–5 percent 42 60 29 14 34 17 34 27
6–15 percent 57 74 32 24 43 23 43 30
More than 15 percent 55 70 32 26 49 28 43 33
                 
Percent of students likely to attend college                
0–35 percent 61 67 34 28 53 29 46 33
36–60 percent 52 71 30 21 43 21 38 28
More than 60 percent 46 68 30 18 33 20 39 30
                 
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important                
0–25 percent 58 69 32 23 50 29 49 28
26–50 percent 59 72 32 27 57 24 41 39
51–75 percent 51 69 36 21 42 26 40 27
More than 75 percent 47 66 27 18 31 17 38 28
                 
Percent male enrollment                
0–44 percent 55 65 37 25 44 29 41 25
45–55 percent 51 69 31 21 42 23 42 31
More than 55 percent 58 70 28 21 39 17 32 25
                 
Student/teacher ratio1,2                
Less than 12 49 70 33 21 40 26 41 30
12–16 56 69 31 20 40 24 42 31
More than 16 50 67 28 23 47 16 37 27
                 
Number of classroom changes1                
0–3 changes 42 63 30 24 38 10 31 31
4–6 changes 53 65 34 24 51 23 44 32
More than 6 changes 55 72 29 20 37 25 41 29
                 
Use of paid law enforcement3                
Regular use 57 71 34 25 45 26 43 31
No regular use 43 64 26 15 37 16 35 28
                 
Number of serious discipline problems4                
No problems 42 60 24 15 31 18 32 20
1 problem 44 72 33 21 45 25 41 31
2 problems 64 71 32 24 45 20 42 39
3 or more problems 68 76 39 31 54 30 53 38
                 
Transfers as percentage of enrollment1,5                
0 to 6 percent 49 66 34 22 41 31 42 29
6 to 11 percent 50 66 32 22 43 19 39 30
11 to 21 percent 52 71 31 20 43 21 41 29
21 percent or more 57 72 27 23 44 20 39 31
                 
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions1,6                
No disruptions 50 68 29 20 42 21 40 28
Any disruptions 59 70 41 26 42 32 47 37
                 
Percent of students absent without excuses                
None 43 60 23 7 25 16 34 24
1–2 percent 49 70 33 21 42 25 39 27
3–5 percent 58 68 38 29 53 23 44 34
6–10 percent 61 75 24 27 42 23 46 36
More than 10 percent 62 77 32 38 60 39 58 41
                 
Prevalence of violent incidents1,7                
No violent incidents 40 51 26 16 31 20 23 18
Any violent incidents 54 71 33 23 44 23 43 32
1 Some schools are omitted from these categories because of missing data on their school characteristics. For this reason, the detailed results do not sum to the totals. See appendix J of 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Detailed Data Documentation (NCES 2004-307) for further information.
2 Student/teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time equivalent teachers. The total number of full-time equivalent teachers is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers, including special education teachers, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
3 Schools were included as regularly using paid law enforcement if they reported the use of paid law enforcement during any of the following times: at any time during school hours, while students were arriving or leaving, at selected school activities, (e.g., athletic and social events, open houses, science fairs), or at any other time that the respondent specified.
4 Serious discipline problems is a count of discipline problems reported by principals. These discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, and student acts of disrespect for teachers. If a principal reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems. Undesirable gang activities and undesirable cult or extremist group activities were also counted once as a problem if the principal reported that these events occurred at all in their school.
5 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school, divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
6 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as bomb threats or anthrax threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
7 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. "At school/at your school" was defined for respondents as including activities happening in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that are holding school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to, unless the survey specified otherwise, only respond for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities/events were in session. A gang was defined for respondents as, "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior." Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education