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Table 29.  Percentage of public middle schools that had specified safety policies to regulate school climate, by selected school characteristics: 1999–2000


School characteristic Require students to wear uniforms Enforce a strict dress code Provide a printed code of student conduct to students Provide a printed code of student conduct to parents Require faculty and staff to wear badges or picture IDs Provide telephones in most classrooms Prohibit all tobacco use on school grounds
All public middle schools 10 61 97 96 26 46 93
               
Enrollment size              
Less than 300 4 55 94 90 12 36 90
300–499 9 61 99 98 17 31 94
500–999 9 61 98 96 33 55 95
1,000 or more23 69 99 97 33 51 92
               
Urbanicity
City 24 70 98 98 29 53 95
Urban fringe 7 58 97 96 34 53 94
Town 10 64 97 95 18 31 96
Rural 2 56 97 94 17 40 90
               
Crime level where students live1              
High 39 75 100 100 27 53 92
Moderate 18 66 99 96 37 43 94
Low 4 57 97 95 23 47 93
Mixed 15 69 98 97 22 42 96
               
Percent minority enrollment1              
0–5 percent 2 51 97 96 19 45 91
6–20 percent # 51 98 95 30 50 95
21–50 percent 6 68 96 96 29 45 95
More than 50 percent 36 78 98 96 25 43 91
               
Percent of students eligible for free/reduced-price lunch              
0–20 percent 2 49 99 96 30 50 94
21–50 percent 4 59 96 95 23 46 93
More than 50 percent 28 76 97 95 25 42 93
               
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests              
0–5 percent 7 56 98 97 21 47 96
6–15 percent 6 58 97 96 25 46 93
More than 15 percent 19 70 97 94 31 46 92
               
Percent of students likely to attend college              
0–35 percent 17 72 97 95 21 45 92
36–60 percent 10 63 97 96 28 43 93
More than 60 percent 4 50 98 96 27 51 95
               
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important              
0–25 percent 18 73 98 97 24 50 92
26–50 percent 12 61 95 93 19 43 94
51–75 percent 9 62 98 97 25 42 93
More than 75 percent 7 57 98 96 31 52 94
               
Percent male enrollment              
0–44 percent 23 62 97 96 24 36 91
45–55 percent 7 61 98 96 26 47 93
More than 55 percent 14 55 96 94 21 53 100
Student/teacher ratio1,2
Less than 12 6 52 98 96 21 38 92
12–16 9 62 97 96 30 43 92
More than 16 16 70 97 94 22 60 96
               
Number of classroom changes1              
0–3 changes 19 66 96 95 27 47 88
4–6 changes 15 70 97 95 28 46 93
More than 6 changes 7 58 98 97 24 47 94
               
Use of paid law enforcement3              
Regular use 13 64 98 97 31 48 93
No regular use 3 54 95 92 14 42 95
               
Number of serious discipline problems4              
No problems 6 59 97 94 20 44 91
1 problem 12 59 97 96 24 46 93
2 problems 10 62 98 96 37 46 96
3 or more problems 14 65 98 97 28 51 94
               
Transfers as percentage of enrollment1,5              
0 to 6 percent 11 56 98 97 24 46 92
6 to 11 percent 8 64 95 94 26 49 93
11 to 21 percent 7 58 98 94 24 46 92
21 percent or more 14 65 98 97 27 47 96
               
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions1,6              
No disruptions 9 61 97 96 24 46 93
Any disruptions 17 66 98 96 33 47 94
               
Percent of students absent without excuses              
None 4 57 96 94 19 49 99
1–2 percent 8 61 97 96 25 44 91
3–5 percent 10 60 98 97 30 44 93
6–10 percent 19 65 98 95 28 50 92
More than 10 percent 31 64 100 97 26 57 91
               
Prevalence of violent incidents1,7              
No violent incidents 11 55 97 91 27 46 91
Any violent incidents 10 62 97 96 26 46 94
# Rounds to zero.
1 Some schools are omitted from these categories because of missing data on their school characteristics. For this reason, the detailed results do not sum to the totals. See appendix J of 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Detailed Data Documentation (NCES 2004-307) for further information.
2 Student/teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time equivalent teachers. The total number of full-time equivalent teachers is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers, including special education teachers, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
3 Schools were included as regularly using paid law enforcement if they reported the use of paid law enforcement during any of the following times: at any time during school hours, while students were arriving or leaving, at selected school activities (e.g., athletic and social events, open houses, science fairs), or at any other time that the respondent specified.
4 Serious discipline problems is a count of discipline problems reported by principals. These discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, and student acts of disrespect for teachers. If a principal reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems. Undesirable gang activities and undesirable cult or extremist group activities were also counted once as a problem if the principal reported that these events occurred at all in their school.
5 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school, divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
6 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as bomb threats or anthrax threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
7 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. "At school/at your school" was defined for respondents as including activities happening in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that are holding school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to, unless the survey specified otherwise, only respond for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities/events were in session. A gang was defined for respondents as, "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior." Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000.


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