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Table 21.  Percentage of public middle schools reporting the use of selected policies to prevent or reduce violence, by selected school characteristics: 1999–2000


School characteristic Training, supervision, or technical assistance in classroom management for teachers Review, revision, or monitoring of schoolwide discipline practices and procedures Training faculty or staff in crime prevention Reorganizing school, grades, or schedules1 Architectural environmental modifications Regularly used paid law enforcement2
All public middle schools 68 92 33 44 32 68
             
Enrollment size            
Less than 300 64 81 26 22 26 40
300–499 56 94 30 36 37 62
500–999 74 93 35 50 32 78
1,000 or more 73 97 43 62 35 84
Urbanicity
City 79 93 37 58 32 88
Urban fringe 71 92 34 47 37 68
Town 59 91 27 37 24 53
Rural 60 91 34 32 30 60
             
Crime level where students live3            
High 78 98 41 50 32 92
Moderate 78 94 42 42 32 77
Low 64 90 30 40 31 62
Mixed 72 93 36 59 35 77
             
Percent minority enrollment3            
0–5 percent 59 90 32 33 35 52
6–20 percent 63 86 25 39 25 64
21–50 percent 75 94 37 51 38 78
More than 50 percent 77 97 40 54 30 82
             
Percent of students eligible for free/reduced-price lunch            
0–20 percent 64 91 30 43 33 63
21–50 percent 65 91 30 39 32 65
More than 50 percent 77 94 42 51 32 78
             
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests            
0–5 percent 67 92 35 40 37 64
6–15 percent 64 90 33 40 32 69
More than 15 percent 75 95 32 51 28 72
             
Percent of students likely to attend college            
0–35 percent 73 93 34 44 29 71
36–60 percent 62 93 33 40 29 69
More than 60 percent 70 90 33 47 37 65
             
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important            
0–25 percent 69 91 33 42 29 72
26–50 percent 68 90 28 40 29 67
51–75 percent 65 92 35 46 32 69
More than 75 percent 70 93 35 44 35 67
             
Percent male enrollment            
0–44 percent 79 92 40 48 39 64
45–55 percent 67 92 32 43 31 69
More than 55 percent 62 90 39 46 28 64
             
Student/teacher ratio3,4            
Less than 12 66 90 27 45 34 64
12–16 67 94 37 42 35 70
More than 16 72 93 35 44 30 71
             
Number of classroom changes3            
0–3 changes 65 93 47 30 23 60
4–6 changes 70 92 32 48 29 70
More than 6 changes 67 92 35 45 36 70
             
Use of paid law enforcement2            
Regular use 72 95 36 50 35 100
No regular use 60 86 28 31 26
             
Number of serious discipline problems5            
No problems 67 90 34 39 31 56
1 problem 64 92 34 40 30 71
2 problems 70 95 37 50 31 67
3 or more problems 72 93 30 49 37 84
             
Transfers as percentage of enrollment3,6            
0 to 6 percent 65 90 33 45 33 67
6 to 11 percent 69 90 29 39 33 70
11 to 21 percent 63 91 34 42 31 59
21 percent or more 75 94 37 47 32 74
             
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions3,7            
No disruptions 68 91 34 43 31 64
Any disruptions 69 95 31 51 39 89
             
Percent of students absent without excuses            
None 59 91 33 36 38 58
1–2 percent 66 88 31 44 28 66
3–5 percent 75 95 35 46 34 72
6–10 percent 69 96 36 43 37 76
More than 10 percent 83 97 42 63 19 96
             
Prevalence of violent incidents3,8            
No violent incidents 68 85 34 30 31 48
Any violent incidents 68 93 33 46 32 71
† Not applicable.
1 For example, schools within a school, "houses" or "teams" of students.
2 Schools were included as regularly using paid law enforcement if they reported the use of paid law enforcement during any of the following times: at any time during school hours, while students were arriving or leaving, at selected school activities (e.g., athletic and social events, open houses, science fairs), or at any other time that the respondent specified.
3 Some schools are omitted from these categories because of missing data on their school characteristics. For this reason, the detailed results do not sum to the totals. See appendix J of 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Detailed Data Documentation (NCES 2004-307) for further information.
4 Student/teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time equivalent teachers. The total number of full-time equivalent teachers is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers, including special education teachers, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
5 Serious discipline problems is a count of discipline problems reported by principals. These discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, and student acts of disrespect for teachers. If a principal reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems. Undesirable gang activities and undesirable cult or extremist group activities were also counted once as a problem if the principal reported that these events occurred at all in their school.
6 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school, divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
7 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as bomb threats or anthrax threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
8 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. "At school/at your school" was defined for respondents as including activities happening in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that are holding school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to, unless the survey specified otherwise, only respond for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities/events were in session. A gang was defined for respondents as, "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior." Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education