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Table 20.  Number and percentage distribution of serious disciplinary actions taken by public middle schools, by selected school characteristics: 1999–2000


School characteristic Removals with
no services
  Transfers to specialized schools1   Out-of-school suspensions   Total removals
and transfers
Number Percent   Number Percent   Number Percent   Number Percent
All public middle schools 32,146 8   26,804 7   323,122 85   58,950 15
                       
Enrollment size                      
Less than 300 2,531 13   1,560 8   15,989 80   4,091 20
300–499 4,549 9   3,984 8   40,203 82   8,534 18
500–999 20,268 9   12,827 5   202,082 86   33,095 14
1,000 or more4,798 6   8,432 11   64,848 83   13,230 17
                       
Urbanicity                      
City 18,369 11   10,459 6   140,005 83   28,829 17
Urban fringe 5,806 4   10,325 8   116,949 88   16,131 12
Town 4,241 13   2,362 7   25,053 79   6,603 21
Rural 3,731 8   3,657 8   41,115 85   7,388 15
                       
Crime level where students live2                      
High 1,835 4   5,143 10   45,272 87   6,978 13
Moderate 9,749 9   7,126 7   90,187 84   16,876 16
Low 15,551 13   9,585 8   95,733 79   25,137 21
Mixed 3,297 3   4,949 5   90,032 92   8,246 8
                       
Percent minority enrollment2                      
0–5 percent 3,021 7   3,134 7   40,168 87   6,155 13
6–20 percent 9,421 12   5,013 7   61,327 81   14,434 19
21–50 percent 9,936 9   7,143 6   96,027 85   17,079 15
More than 50 percent 9,073 6   11,462 8   123,969 86   20,535 14
                       
Percent of students eligible for free/reduced-price lunch                      
0–20 percent 6,378 11   5,516 10   44,620 79   11,894 21
21–50 percent 16,158 10   8,892 5   137,337 85   25,050 15
More than 50 percent 9,610 6   12,396 8   141,164 87   22,006 13
                       
Percent of students below 15th
percentile on standardized tests
                     
0–5 percent 5,190 8   4,238 6   57,395 86   9,473 14
6–15 percent 12,279 9   10,444 8   114,366 83   22,723 17
More than 15 percent 14,678 8   12,076 7   151,362 85   26,754 15
                       
Percent of students likely to
attend college
                     
0–35 percent 13,417 8   11,710 7   139,844 85   25,127 15
36–60 percent 9,350 9   8,380 8   85,518 83   17,731 17
More than 60 percent 9,379 8   6,713 6   97,759 86   16,092 14
                       
Percent of students who consider
academic achievement important
                     
0–25 percent 2,912 6   4,545 9   42,949 85   7,457 15
26–50 percent 4,831 4   7,175 6   105,129 90   12,007 10
51–75 percent 16,324 13   7,935 7   97,653 80   24,259 20
More than 75 percent 8,079 9   7,148 8   77,391 84   15,227 16
                       
Percent male enrollment                      
0–44 percent 1,299 3   5,184 12   36,084 85   6,483 15
45–55 percent 29,901 9   19,245 6   269,418 85   49,146 15
More than 55 percent 946 5   2,374 11   17,619 84   3,320 16
                       
Student/teacher ratio2,3                      
Less than 12 3,612 4   7,102 9   71,419 87   10,715 13
12–16 13,256 8   9,674 6   135,306 86   22,930 14
More than 16 12,374 12   8,561 8   84,849 80   20,936 20
                       
Number of classroom changes2                      
0–3 changes 427 5   586 7   7,637 88   1,013 12
4–6 changes 10,408 8   12,149 9   107,380 83   22,557 17
More than 6 changes 18,014 9   11,459 6   176,624 86   29,472 14
                       
Use of paid law enforcement4                      
Regular use 23,331 7   23,278 7   280,188 86   46,609 14
No regular use 8,815 16   3,525 6   42,934 78   12,340 22
                       
Number of serious discipline
problems5
                     
No problems 6,583 13   3,675 7   39,679 79   10,258 21
1 problem 11,428 15   4,728 6   60,565 79   16,156 21
2 problems 9,585 13   5,846 8   60,461 80   15,431 20
3 or more problems 4,550 3   12,555 7   162,416 90   17,105 10
                       
Transfers as percentage of
enrollment2,6
                     
0 to 6 percent 7,004 9   5,232 7   65,987 84   12,235 16
6 to 11 percent 4,514 7   3,332 5   58,663 88   7,846 12
11 to 21 percent 8,132 9   6,535 7   73,643 83   14,667 17
21 percent or more 11,381 8   10,809 8   114,991 84   22,190 16
                       
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions2,7
                     
No disruptions 22,468 9   18,158 7   217,091 84   40,627 16
Any disruptions 6,199 6   7,237 7   94,771 88   13,436 12
                       
Percent of students absent
without excuses
                     
None 1,909 5   2,738 8   30,635 87   4,647 13
1–2 percent 14,029 11   7,968 6   102,209 82   21,997 18
3–5 percent 6,683 5   8,127 7   108,749 88   14,810 12
6–10 percent 5,697 8   6,169 9   57,201 83   11,866 17
More than 10 percent 3,828 13   1,802 6   24,327 81   5,630 19
                       
Prevalence of violent incidents2,8                      
No violent incidents 959 8   377 3   11,288 89   1,336 11
Any violent incidents 30,321 8   26,294 7   310,742 85   56,616 15
1 Specialized school was defined for respondents as, "a school that is specifically for students who were referred for disciplinary reasons. The school may also have students who were referred for other reasons. The school may be at the same location as your school."
2 Some schools are omitted from these categories because of missing data on their school characteristics. For this reason, the detailed results do not sum to the totals. See appendix J of 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Detailed Data Documentation (NCES 2004-307) for further information.
3 Student/teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time equivalent teachers. The total number of full-time equivalent teachers is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers, including special education teachers, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
4 Schools were included as regularly using paid law enforcement if they reported the use of paid law enforcement during any of the following times: at any time during school hours, while students were arriving or leaving, at selected school activities (e.g., athletic and social events, open houses, science fairs), or at any other time that the respondent specified.
5 Serious discipline problems is a count of discipline problems reported by principals. These discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, and student acts of disrespect for teachers. If a principal reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems. Undesirable gang activities and undesirable cult or extremist group activities were also counted once as a problem if the principal reported that these events occurred at all in their school.
6 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school, divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
7 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as bomb threats or anthrax threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
8 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. "At school/at your school" was defined for respondents as including activities happening in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that are holding school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to, unless the survey specified otherwise, only respond for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities/events were in session. A gang was defined for respondents as, "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior." Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education