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Table 13.  Percentage of public middle schools reporting that removals for at least one year, transfers, or suspensions for less than one year were available as disciplinary actions, by selected school characteristics: 1999–2000


School characteristic Removal or transfer for at least 1 year   Suspension or removal for less than 1 year
Removal with no continuing school services Transfer to specialized school1 Transfer to another regular school Transfer to school-provided tutoring/at-home instruction   Out of school suspension   In-school suspension
  No curriculum/ services provided Curriculum/ services provided   No curriculum/ services provided Curriculum/ services provided
All public middle schools 68 80 55 80   67 90   42 91
                     
Enrollment size                    
Less than 300 75 76 43 75   76 91   56 88
300–499 74 69 42 77   68 87   37 94
500–999 64 84 61 82   67 92   41 91
1,000 or more59 88 71 80   53 88   36 90
                     
Urbanicity                    
City 64 91 73 75   56 88   30 91
Urban fringe 59 83 55 85   60 91   40 91
Town 77 71 43 73   75 88   45 90
Rural 76 72 46 81   79 92   52 92
                     
Crime level where students live2                    
High 51 97 72 70   64 88   31 76
Moderate 66 89 60 82   58 89   33 91
Low 70 76 52 80   68 91   47 91
Mixed 65 79 60 80   72 88   32 94
                     
Percent minority enrollment2                    
0–5 percent 76 73 43 86   76 94   57 93
6–20 percent 73 79 54 77   68 90   36 92
21–50 percent 59 81 59 79   62 89   36 89
More than 50 percent 58 87 66 74   59 88   34 90
                     
Percent of students eligible for free/reduced-price lunch                    
0–20 percent 68 80 53 84   66 92   46 91
21–50 percent 71 77 54 79   70 92   43 93
More than 50 percent 63 84 58 75   63 86   37 88
                     
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests                    
0–5 percent 65 83 53 82   64 90   42 92
6–15 percent 68 75 52 80   68 92   42 92
More than 15 percent 69 84 62 76   68 89   42 89
                     
Percent of students likely to attend college                    
0–35 percent 66 84 58 79   70 90   44 90
36–60 percent 69 77 54 74   64 86   36 91
More than 60 percent 67 80 53 87   67 95   48 92
                     
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important                    
0–25 percent 65 91 57 73   74 92   49 91
26–50 percent 65 78 57 82   70 87   37 87
51–75 percent 69 76 55 76   68 87   44 91
More than 75 percent 69 82 54 84   61 95   41 94
                     
Percent male enrollment                    
0–44 percent 72 83 61 78   75 85   44 86
45–55 percent 66 79 55 80   66 91   42 92
More than 55 percent 76 82 45 76   66 93   41 91
                     
Student/teacher ratio2,3                    
Less than 12 67 76 50 79   67 91   42 94
12–16 72 84 56 80   69 90   41 92
More than 16 63 78 60 81   67 91   43 87
                     
Number of classroom changes2                    
0–3 changes 72 92 55 68   80 86   38 80
4–6 changes 71 84 56 80   68 91   44 93
More than 6 changes 64 74 54 80   62 90   41 90
                     
Use of paid law enforcement4                    
Regular use 67 83 59 81   66 92   39 92
No regular use 68 72 45 76   69 88   49 89
                     
Number of serious discipline problems5                    
No problems 72 80 53 80   72 91   46 90
1 problem 67 74 56 80   61 91   46 93
2 problems 68 84 44 72   65 89   39 92
3 or more problems 62 83 63 83   67 90   34 90
                     
Transfers as percentage of enrollment2,6                    
0 to 6 percent 69 79 60 77   66 90   51 91
6 to 11 percent 69 80 56 75   68 89   47 93
11 to 21 percent 62 77 45 82   66 88   39 91
21 percent or more 69 82 60 84   68 93   33 89
                     
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions2,7                    
No disruptions 67 80 53 80   66 91   41 91
Any disruptions 71 82 62 76   65 87   42 89
                     
Percent of students absent without excuses                    
None 71 81 57 90   69 95   45 92
1–2 percent 65 77 53 76   68 89   38 89
3–5 percent 70 83 52 76   68 87   44 94
6–10 percent 69 77 59 85   63 92   44 90
More than 10 percent 56 91 73 79   54 92   46 93
                     
Prevalence of violent incidents2,8                    
No violent incidents 65 80 51 72   66 86   42 88
Any violent incidents 68 80 55 81   67 91   41 91
1 Specialized school was defined for respondents as, "a school that is specifically for students who were referred for disciplinary reasons. The school may also have students who were referred for other reasons. The school may be at the same location as your school."
2 Some schools are omitted from these categories because of missing data on their school characteristics. For this reason, the detailed results do not sum to the totals. See appendix J of 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Detailed Data Documentation (NCES 2004-307) for further information.
3 Student/teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time equivalent teachers. The total number of full-time equivalent teachers is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers, including special education teachers, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
4 Schools were included as regularly using paid law enforcement if they reported the use of paid law enforcement during any of the following times: at any time during school hours, while students were arriving or leaving, at selected school activities (e.g., athletic and social events, open houses, science fairs), or at any other time that the respondent specified.
5 Serious discipline problems is a count of discipline problems reported by principals. These discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, and student acts of disrespect for teachers. If a principal reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems. Undesirable gang activities and undesirable cult or extremist group activities were also counted once as a problem if the principal reported that these events occurred at all in their school.
6 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school, divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
7 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as bomb threats or anthrax threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
8 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. "At school/at your school" was defined for respondents as including activities happening in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that are holding school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to, unless the survey specified otherwise, only respond for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities/events were in session. A gang was defined for respondents as, "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior." Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education