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Table 9.  Number and percentage of public middle schools reporting violent and other incidents of gang-related crimes with the number of incidents reported, by selected school characteristics: 1999–2000


School characteristic Violent incidents1   Serious violent incidents2   Theft3   Other incidents4
Num-
ber of schools
Per-
cent of schools
Num-
ber of incidents
  Num-
ber of schools
Per-
cent of schools
Num-
ber of incidents
  Num-
ber of schools
Per-
cent of schools
Num-
ber of incidents
  Num-
ber of schools
Per-
cent of schools
Num-
ber of incidents
All public middle schools 1,228 8 7,170   187 1 824     1,010 7 6,784
                               
Enrollment size                              
Less than 300 116 4 395   # # #   # # #  
300–499 164 5 592     # # #   148 4 555
500–999 648 9 3,315   118 2 146     596 8 4,059
1,000 or more299 15 2,867   47 2 656     216 11 1,918
                               
Urbanicity                              
City 596 17 4,088   93 3 119     463 14 3,645
Urban fringe 367 7 2,278   58 1 654     374 7 2,498
Town 169 7 638     # # #   140 6 375
Rural 95 2 120     # # #  
                               
Crime level where students live5                              
High 239 32 1,233   57 8 83   # # #   70 9 145
Moderate 332 13 1,719   57 2 57     369 14 1,872
Low 398 4 1,802     # # #   379 4 1,580
Mixed 208 10 2,164   49 2 660     142 7 2,936
                               
Percent minority enrollment5                              
0–5 percent 53 1 82     # # #  
6–20 percent 138 4 454     # # #   161 4 460
21–50 percent 330 9 2,263   55 2 578     304 9 2,469
More than 50 percent 650 19 4,021   93 3 119     492 14 3,474
                               
Percent of students eligible for free/reduced-price lunch                              
0–20 percent 123 3 578   # # #   # # #   171 4 665
21–50 percent 359 6 2,304   71 1 667     368 6 2,726
More than 50 percent 745 17 4,288   116 3 156     471 11 3,394
                               
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests                              
0–5 percent 162 4 691     # # #   138 3 989
6–15 percent 450 7 2,495   72 1 86     382 6 1,663
More than 15 percent 615 14 3,985   102 2 725     491 11 4,132
                               
Percent of students likely to attend college                              
0–35 percent 665 15 3,671   85 2 199     500 12 3,753
36–60 percent 464 8 3,181   102 2 625     325 6 2,039
More than 60 percent 99 2 318   # # #   # # #   185 3 992
                               
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important                              
0–25 percent 235 14 1,362       184 11 1,096
26–50 percent 469 14 3,400   124 4 747     337 10 2,546
51–75 percent 391 8 1,936     # # #   328 6 2,547
More than 75 percent 132 3 471   # # #   # # #   162 3 595
                               
Percent male enrollment                              
0–44 percent 122 6 1,585       105 5 1,489
45–55 percent 1,055 9 5,386   156 1 285   # # #   873 7 5,179
More than 55 percent 50 4 199   # # #    
                               
Student/teacher ratio5,6                              
Less than 12 235 5 1,259   63 1 63   # # #   192 4 2,456
12–16 542 10 3,336   59 1 596     297 5 2,137
More than 16 400 9 2,323   65 2 165     450 11 1,919
                               
Number of classroom changes5                              
0–3 changes   # # #   # # #   # # #
4–6 changes 550 10 2,300       487 9 3,523
More than 6 changes 565 8 4,008   139 2 764     428 6 3,105
                               
Use of paid law enforcement7                              
Regular use 1,079 10 6,659   164 2 801     880 8 6,242
No regular use 149 3 511     # # #   131 3 542
                               
Number of serious discipline problems8                              
No problems 76 1 208     # # #   70 1 590
1 problem 336 9 1,673       253 7 1,041
2 problems 236 10 806     # # #   218 9 1,013
3 or more problems 580 15 4,483   93 2 703     470 12 4,141
                               
Transfers as percentage of enrollment5,9                              
0 to 6 percent 107 3 548     # # #   214 6 913
6 to 11 percent 335 10 2,462   48 1 48   # # #   201 6 1,130
11 to 21 percent 198 5 719     # # #   267 7 941
21 percent or more 547 14 3,126   90 2 701     302 8 3,574
                               
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions5,10                              
No disruptions 778 6 3,528   94 1 210   # # #   799 7 5,324
Any disruptions 337 14 3,206   92 4 613     158 6 1,281
                               
Percent of students absent without excuses                              
None 69 2 723   # # #   # # #   68 2 196
1–2 percent 413 7 1,810   74 1 103     370 6 1,870
3–5 percent 315 9 1,615     # # #   332 9 2,586
6–10 percent 266 13 1,122   52 2 64   # # #   122 6 731
More than 10 percent 165 31 1,901       118 22 1,401
# Rounds to zero.
‡ Reporting standards not met.
1 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
2 Serious violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with a weapon, threat of physical attack with a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
3 Theft/larceny (taking things over $10 without personal confrontation) was defined for respondents as, "the unlawful taking of another person's property without personal confrontation, threat, violence, or bodily harm. Included are pocket picking, stealing purse or backpack (if left unattended or no force was used to take it from owner), theft from a building, theft from a motor vehicle or motor vehicle parts or accessories, theft of bicycles, theft from vending machines, and all other types of thefts."
4 Other incidents include possession of a firearm or explosive device, possession of a knife or sharp object, distribution of illegal drugs, possession or use of alcohol or illegal drugs, sexual harassment, or vandalism.
5 Some schools are omitted from these categories because of missing data on their school characteristics. For this reason, the detailed results do not sum to the totals. See appendix J of 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Detailed Data Documentation (NCES 2004-307) for further information.
6 Student/teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time equivalent teachers. The total number of full-time equivalent teachers is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers, including special education teachers, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
7 Schools were included as regularly using paid law enforcement if they reported the use of paid law enforcement during any of the following times: at any time during school hours, while students were arriving or leaving, at selected school activities (e.g., athletic and social events, open houses, science fairs), or at any other time that the respondent specified.
8 Serious discipline problems is a count of discipline problems reported by principals. These discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, and student acts of disrespect for teachers. If a principal reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems. Undesirable gang activities and undesirable cult or extremist group activities were also counted once as a problem if the principal reported that these events occurred at all in their school.
9 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school, divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
10 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as bomb threats or anthrax threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. "At school/at your school" was defined for respondents as including activities happening in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that are holding school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to, unless the survey specified otherwise, only respond for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities/events were in session. A gang was defined for respondents as, "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior." Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education