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Table 22.  Percentage of public primary schools reporting the use of selected violence prevention program components, by selected school characteristics: School year 2003–04


  Percentage of schools using selected violence prevention program components
School characteristic Prevention curriculum, instruction, or training for students1 Behavioral
or behavior modifi-
cation inter-
vention for students
Counseling, social work, psycho-
logical, or therapeutic activity for students or adults
Individual attention, mentoring, tutoring, or coaching of students by students or adults Recreational, enrichment, or leisure activities for students Students’ involve-
ment in resolving student conduct problems2
Programs to promote a sense of community
or social integration among students
Hotline or tipline for students to report problems
All public schools  91 93 93 93 83 56 83 24
                 
Enrollment size                 
Less than 300  89 92 92 92 80 59 81 26
300–499  91 94 94 94 82 52 84 18
500–999  91 93 93 94 86 58 84 28
1,000 or more  93 85 96 85 78 68 85 18
                 
Urbanicity                 
City  93 97 95 96 86 62 84 25
Urban fringe  90 92 91 93 81 58 86 22
Town  88 89 96 89 79 52 85 23
Rural  90 92 93 91 83 51 78 25
                 
Crime level where
students live3
               
High  93 94 99 97 91 57 87 34
Moderate  90 96 94 93 83 58 78 19
Low  91 92 92 92 82 56 83 25
Mixed  90 95 93 93 80 57 90 18
                 
Percent minority enrollment4                
Less than 5 percent  89 93 91 88 82 51 76 24
5 to 20 percent  93 92 93 91 79 55 89 26
20 to 50 percent  92 95 94 96 85 62 83 21
50 percent or more  89 93 94 95 85 57 84 23
                 
Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch                 
0–20 percent  92 95 92 95 84 59 91 23
21–50 percent  90 91 90 92 83 55 78 22
More than 50 percent  90 93 96 93 83 56 83 26
                 
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests                 
0–5 percent  93 94 93 95 88 60 88 26
6–15 percent  90 93 93 92 81 56 83 21
More than 15 percent  90 93 94 92 80 53 79 26
                 
Percent of students likely to attend college                 
0–35 percent  93 95 93 94 82 58 81 23
36–60 percent  90 92 92 92 82 52 80 25
More than 60 percent  89 92 94 93 85 59 88 24
                 
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important                 
0–25 percent  91 95 95 95 87 73 74 24
26–50 percent  89 96 93 92 78 49 82 22
51–75 percent  89 91 93 92 82 51 82 25
More than 75 percent  92 93 93 94 85 60 86 24
                 
Percent male enrollment                 
0–44 percent  88 97 86 93 85 61 79 38
45–55 percent  91 93 94 93 83 56 82 24
More than 55 percent  93 94 92 90 79 55 91 16
                 
Student-to-teacher ratio5                
Less than 12 students  91 93 94 91 82 53 84 24
12–16 students  91 93 94 95 83 58 82 25
More than 16 students  90 92 90 92 85 60 85 21
                 
Number of classroom changes6                
0–3 changes  91 93 93 93 80 61 84 21
4–6 changes  91 93 94 92 85 51 83 24
More than 6 changes  89 94 92 96 84 63 85 31
                 
Regular use of law enforcement7                 
Regular use  93 93 96 94 85 58 86 26
No regular use  90 93 92 92 82 56 82 23
                 
Number of serious discipline problems8                 
No problems  92 93 93 93 84 57 83 24
1 problem  89 93 94 93 80 57 83 21
2 problems  88 98 95 91 86 55 83 31
3 or more problems  83 91 93 97 76 53 82 20
                 
Transfers as a percentage of enrollment9                 
0 to 6 percent  90 93 89 90 86 59 88 21
6 to 11 percent  93 94 95 94 82 56 83 24
11 to 21 percent  91 93 92 90 85 57 84 24
21 percent or more  90 93 95 97 80 55 80 25
                 
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions10                 
No disruptions  91 93 93 93 83 56 83 24
Any disruptions  90 96 96 90 88 61 81 27
                 
Percent of students absent on a daily basis                 
0–2 percent  89 89 89 96 87 66 89 23
3–5 percent  92 93 94 93 82 54 82 23
6–10 percent  90 94 94 92 83 57 82 26
More than 10 percent  90 95 88 95 84 61 87 32
                 
Prevalence of violent incidents11                
No violent incidents  91 92 92 91 78 58 84 23
Any violent incidents  90 93 94 94 85 56 83 24
1 For example, social skills training.
2 For example, conflict resolution, peer mediation, or student court.
3 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime,"and "Students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
4 These estimates exclude data from Tennessee because schools in this state did not report estimates of student race.
5 Student-to-teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
6 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
7 Respondents were asked, "During the 2003–2004 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on a regular basis?"
8 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
9 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
10 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
11 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education