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Table 12.  Percentage of public primary schools reporting that removals or transfers for at least the remainder of the school year or suspensions for less than the remainder of the school year were allowable disciplinary actions, by selected school characteristics: School year 2003–04


School characteristic  Removal or transfer for at least the remainder of the school year   Out-of-school suspension   In-school suspension
Removal with no continuing school services Transfer to specialized school1 Transfer to another regular school Removal with tutoring or at-home instruction   No curriculum services provided Curriculum services provided   No curriculum services provided Curriculum services provided
All public schools  42 59 40 57   60 73   25 73
                     
Enrollment size                     
Less than 300  52 59 33 64   60 72   28 73
300–499  43 61 41 61   57 79   28 72
500–999  37 57 41 48   62 68   21 74
1,000 or more  23 61 56 42   62 69   18 82
                     
Urbanicity                     
City  40 61 52 52   59 69   22 74
Urban fringe  37 57 40 58   58 74   26 71
Town  49 56 23 56   57 79   28 77
Rural  49 61 33 60   64 73   26 74
                     
Crime level where students live2                     
                   
High  38 60 49 40   68 65   13 67
Moderate  44 59 45 55   65 77   26 77
Low  43 58 35 61   58 74   27 73
Mixed  42 62 45 51   56 68   22 73
                     
Percent minority enrollment3                     
                   
Less than 5 percent  54 67 37 69   67 77   34 81
5 to 20 percent  46 57 29 69   57 75   29 70
20 to 50 percent  42 60 44 55   58 77   23 75
50 percent or more  32 56 45 41   59 66   19 70
                     
Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch                     
                   
                   
0–20 percent  39 61 37 62   55 75   29 72
21–50 percent  49 56 38 64   60 78   31 75
More than 50 percent  39 61 42 48   62 68   19 72
                     
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests                     
                   
                   
0–5 percent  44 60 35 57   53 72   23 72
6–15 percent  44 59 41 58   61 73   31 75
More than 15 percent  37 57 42 55   66 73   19 71
                     
Percent of students likely to attend college                     
                   
0–35 percent  43 62 42 51   65 69   25 70
36–60 percent  44 58 37 60   60 76   25 75
More than 60 percent  41 57 40 59   55 74   26 75
                     
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important                     
                   
                   
0–25 percent  38 53 37 42   67 66   28 71
26–50 percent  45 67 48 62   68 73   29 71
51–75 percent  46 56 38 54   59 72   20 76
More than 75 percent  40 58 37 59   54 75   26 73
                     
Percent male enrollment                     
0–44 percent  33 59 34 50   61 63   16 62
45–55 percent  42 58 40 57   60 74   25 75
More than 55 percent  51 63 38 59   61 68   30 68
                     
Student-to-teacher ratio4                      
Less than 12 students  40 59 34 55   62 70   26 74
12–16 students  46 63 42 59   60 73   25 71
More than 16 students  38 52 48 55   56 80   23 75
                     
Number of classroom changes5                      
                   
0–3 changes  37 53 40 50   54 68   27 67
4–6 changes  44 61 38 60   62 75   22 75
More than 6 changes  54 72 44 68   71 82   32 87
                     
Regular use of law enforcement6                      
                   
Regular use  40 60 42 52   64 68   26 75
No regular use  43 59 38 59   58 75   25 72
                     
Number of serious discipline problems7                     
                   
No problems  42 58 37 58   54 74   25 72
1 problem  42 61 43 57   73 72   31 79
2 problems  47 68 51 56   75 72   22 83
3 or more problems  41 50 41 44   72 67   11 60
                     
Transfers as a percentage of enrollment8                      
                   
0 to 6 percent  35 56 40 51   49 70   28 65
6 to 11 percent  44 57 40 58   61 71   27 73
11 to 21 percent  41 64 38 62   62 74   27 76
21 percent or more  47 57 40 53   64 75   21 75
                     
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions9                     
                   
No disruptions  42 59 39 57   59 72   25 73
Any disruptions  58 66 49 50   79 88   40 79
                     
Percent of students absent on a daily basis                     
                   
0–2 percent  46 55 33 58   52 62   36 63
3–5 percent  44 60 39 55   60 76   24 76
6–10 percent  39 61 43 60   65 73   24 73
More than 10 percent  30 43 44 54   43 56   23 63
                     
Prevalence of violent incidents10                     
                   
No violent incidents  35 51 34 60   43 68   24 65
Any violent incidents  45 62 41 55   66 75   26 76
1 Specialized school was defined for respondents as "a school that is specifically for students who were referred for disciplinary reasons. The school may also have students who were referred for other reasons. The school may be at the same location as your school."
2 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
3 These estimates exclude data from Tennessee because schools in this state did not report estimates of student race.
4 Student-to-teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
5 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
6 Respondents were asked, "During the 2003–2004 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on a regular basis?"
7 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
8 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
9 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
10 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education