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Table 8.  Number and percentage of public primary schools reporting incidents of hate crime and gang-related crime at school, the number of incidents reported, and the rate of incidents per 1,000 students, by selected school characteristics: School year 2003–04


  Hate crime1   Gang-related crime2
School characteristic Number of schools Percent of schools Number of incidents Rate per 1,000 students   Number of schools Percent of schools Number of incidents Rate per 1,000 students
All public schools 461 1 2,124 0   792 2 2,895 0
                   
Enrollment size                   
Less than 300  # # # #   # # # #
300–499  161 1 241 #   315 2 1,522 0
500–999  213 1 657 0   302 2 585 0
1,000 or more  88 6 1,227 1   175 13 788 1
                   
Urbanicity                   
City  249 2 1,468 0   529 4 2,573 0
Urban fringe  116 1 174 #   206 1 264 #
Town  # # # #   # # # #
Rural  96 1 482 0   57 # 57 #
                   
Crime level where students live3                   
                 
High  163 4 1,539 1   180 5 1,463 1
Moderate  182 2 240 0   406 4 1,227 0
Low  115 # 345 #   131 # 131 #
Mixed  # # # #   75 1 75 #
                   
Percent minority enrollment4                   
                 
Less than 5 percent  58 1 58 #   # # # #
5 to 20 percent  57 # 287 0   57 # 57 #
20 to 50 percent  39 # 196 #   137 1 329 0
50 percent or more  307 2 1,584 0   599 4 2,509 0
                   
Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch                   
                 
                 
0–20 percent  58 1 58 #   # # # #
21–50 percent  # # # #   56 # 168 #
More than 50 percent  403 2 2,066 0   736 3 2,727 0
                   
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests                   
                 
                 
0–5 percent  58 # 58 #   73 # 73 #
6–15 percent  83 # 239 #   275 1 543 0
More than 15 percent  320 2 1,827 0   444 3 2,279 0
                   
Percent of students likely to attend college                   
                 
0–35 percent  320 2 688 0   593 4 2,521 0
36–60 percent  # # # #   44 # 219 #
More than 60 percent  141 1 1,436 0   155 1 155 #
                   
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important                   
                 
                 
0–25 percent  139 3 277 0   251 6 1,660 1
26–50 percent  101 1 1,470 0   218 2 788 0
51–75 percent  80 1 80 #   80 1 161 #
More than 75 percent  141 1 297 #   243 1 287 #
                   
Percent male enrollment                   
0–44 percent  138 4 367 0   176 6 351 0
45–55 percent  265 1 1,699 0   536 1 2,383 0
More than 55 percent  58 1 58 #   80 1 161 0
                   
Student-to-teacher ratio5                   
Less than 12 students  57 # 287 #   330 2 805 0
12–16 students  279 1 1,713 0   375 2 1,959 0
More than 16 students  124 1 124 #   88 1 131 #
                   
Number of classroom6 changes                   
                 
0–3 changes  88 # 1,227 0   367 2 886 0
4–6 changes  373 2 898 0   313 1 1,673 0
More than 6 changes  # # # #   112 2 336 0
                   
Regular use of law enforcement7                   
                 
Regular use  221 1 516 0   581 4 2,684 0
No regular use  240 1 1,608 0   211 1 211 #
                   
Number of serious discipline problems8                   
                 
No problems  159 # 389 #   566 2 1,046 0
1 problem  102 1 1,299 0   146 2 642 0
2 problems  # # # #   # # # #
3 or more problems  200 9 437 0   80 4 1,207 1
                   
Transfers as a percentage of enrollment9                   
                 
0 to 6 percent  # # # #   # # # #
6 to 11 percent  159 2 389 0   225 2 1,396 0
11 to 21 percent  # # # #   231 2 630 0
21 percent or more  302 2 1,736 0   336 2 869 0
                   
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions10                   
                 
No disruptions  461 1 2,124 0   663 1 2,653 0
Any disruptions  # # # #   130 8 242 0
                   
Percent of students absent on a daily basis                   
                 
0–2 percent  # # # #   # # # #
3–5 percent  182 1 182 #   540 2 2,392 0
6–10 percent  141 1 1,494 0   195 2 445 0
More than 10 percent  138 7 448 0   57 3 57 0
# Rounds to zero.
1 A hate crime was defined for respondents as "a criminal offense or threat against a person, property, or society that is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender's bias against a race, color, national origin, ethnicity, gender, religion, disability, or sexual orientation."
2 Gang was defined for respondents as "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior."
3 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
4 These estimates exclude data from Tennessee because schools in this state did not report estimates of student race.
5 Student-to-teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time- equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
6 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
7 Respondents were asked, "During the 2003–2004 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on a regular basis?"
8 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
9 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
10 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education