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Table 31.  Percentage of public schools reporting that their efforts to reduce or prevent crime at school were limited in a major or minor way due to specified non-school-level factors, by selected school characteristics: School year 2007–08
 
School characteristic Inadequate funds   Fear of district or state reprisal   Federal, state, or district policies on disciplining special education students1   Federal policies on discipline and safety other than those for special education students1   State or district policies on discipline and safety other than those for special education students1  
All public schools  63   19   60   36   37  
                     
Level2                     
Primary  61   17   57   34   35  
Middle  61   18   65   38   38  
High school  68   22   65   41   41  
Combined  76   30   61   40   40  
                     
Enrollment size                     
Less than 300  70   21   56   38   39  
300–499  62   16   57   31   31  
500–999  58   19   61   36   38  
1,000 or more  68   24   70   44   44  
                     
Urbanicity                     
City  66   22   64   40   42  
Suburb  58   16   54   31   32  
Town  66   17   60   38   38  
Rural  64   20   62   36   37  
                     
Crime level where students live3                     
High  74   32   77   56   56  
Moderate  73   24   67   45   48  
Low  59   15   55   30   31  
Mixed  62   21   60   36   36  
                     
Percent of combined Black/African
   American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian,
   Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific
   Islander, and American Indian/
   Alaska Native students4 
                   
Less than 5 percent  67   20   62   36   35  
5 to less than 20 percent  62   13   55   31   30  
20 to less than 50 percent  61   18   62   33   35  
50 percent or more  64   24   61   42   44  
                     
Percent of students eligible for
   free or reduced-price lunch
                   
0–20 percent  52   9   47   25   24  
21–50 percent  65   18   59   35   35  
More than 50 percent  68   25   66   43   45  
                     
Percent of students below
   15th percentile on
   standardized tests
                   
0–5 percent  58   13   52   29   28  
6–15 percent  63   19   63   36   38  
More than 15 percent  72   27   66   45   47  
                     
Percent of students likely
   to attend college
                   
0–35 percent  71   25   68   45   46  
36–60 percent  69   23   68   41   43  
More than 60 percent  56   13   51   28   29  
                     
Percent of students who
   consider academic
   achievement important
                   
0–25 percent  72   22   69   49   47  
26–50 percent  76   31   73   46   48  
51–75 percent  68   21   65   42   42  
More than 75 percent  55   13   50   27   29  
                     
Percent male enrollment                     
0–44 percent  68   22   66   44   44  
45–55 percent  62   18   59   34   36  
More than 55 percent  68   22   63   41   40  
                     
Student-to-FTE ratio5                     
Less than 12 students  63   19   58   34   36  
12–16 students  60   17   63   37   39  
More than 16 students  70   22   58   38   37  
                     
Number of classroom changes6                     
0–3 changes  62   20   55   37   39  
4–6 changes  64   16   59   33   34  
More than 6 changes  64   22   65   39   39  
                     
Regular use of law enforcement7                     
Regular use  66   22   65   42   43  
No regular use  61   16   56   31   31  
                     
Number of serious
   discipline problems8 
                   
No problems  57   15   54   30   31  
1 problem  74   21   71   44   45  
2 problems  82   33   73   52   55  
3 or more problems  80   45   78   60   65  
                     
Transfers as a percentage
   of enrollment9 
                   
Less than 6 percent  55   14   52   31   32  
6 to less than 11 percent  63   14   57   33   35  
11 to less than 21 percent  66   22   63   39   40  
21 percent or more  67   23   64   39   39  
                     
Prevalence of schoolwide
   disruptions10 
                   
No disruptions  62   18   59   35   36  
Any disruptions  76   32   68   49   50  
                     
Percent of students
   absent on a daily basis 
                   
0–2 percent  57   21   52   33   31  
3–5 percent  59   15   57   33   34  
6–10 percent  70   24   66   40   41  
More than 10 percent  72   29   64   45   46  
                     
Prevalence of violent incidents11                     
No violent incidents  54   14   44   26   27  
Any violent incidents  66   21   65   39   40  
1 A special education student was defined for respondents as "a child with a disability, defined as mental retardation, hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness), serious emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities, and who needs special education and related services and receives these under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)."
2 Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
3 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and students come from areas with very different levels of crime.
4 Student-to-FTE ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
5 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
6 Respondents were asked, "During the 2007–08 school year, did you have any security guards, security personnel, or sworn law enforcement officers present at your school at least once a week?"
7 Serious discipline problems include student racial/ethnic tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers other than verbal abuse, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
8 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
9 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
10 Violent incidents include rape or attempted rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to rate the level of limitation in their school’s efforts to reduce or prevent crime for each factor. Survey response options included “limits in major way,” “limits in minor way,” or “does not limit." The estimates in this table represent only those schools that reported limitations in a major or minor way. Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2007–08 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2008.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education