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Table 22.  Percentage of public schools reporting the use of selected violence prevention program components, by selected school characteristics: School year 2007–08
  Percentage of schools using selected violence prevention program components 
School characteristic Pre-
vention curri-
culum, instruc-
tion, or train-
ing for students1
  Behav-
ioral or behavior modi-
fication inter-
vention for stu-
dents
  Counsel-
ing, social work, psycho-
logical, or therapeutic activity for students
  Individual attention, mentoring, tutoring, or coach-
ing of students by stu-
dents or adults
  Recrea-
tional, enrich-
ment, or leisure activities for students
  Students’ involvement in resolving student conduct problems2   Programs to promote a sense of com-
munity or social inte-
gration among students
  Hotline or tipline for stu-
dents to report problems
 
All public schools  88   90   92   90   84   53   80   26  
                                 
Level3                                 
Primary  92   93   92   91   83   51   81   19  
Middle  89   93   96   92   89   61   82   34  
High school  73   85   91   90   81   54   78   42  
Combined  81   80   92   79   81   42   68   26  
                                 
Enrollment size                                 
Less than 300  86   84   84   84   81   46   73   20  
300–499  90   92   95   90   82   51   81   21  
500–999  89   94   96   93   86   55   82   26  
1,000 or more  82   90   95   93   86   66   83   49  
                                 
Urbanicity                                 
City  94   95   95   93   88   62   87   29  
Suburb  89   93   94   93   85   58   85   25  
Town  85   89   92   90   80   47   77   27  
Rural  83   85   89   86   80   43   70   23  
                                 
Crime level where students live4                                 
High  92   94   94   92   85   70   81   23  
Moderate  92   93   94   92   85   53   80   26  
Low  86   89   91   88   82   49   78   23  
Mixed  88   92   96   96   86   61   86   39  
                                 
Percent of combined Black/African
    American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian,
    Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific
    Islander, and American Indian/
    Alaska Native students
                               
Less than 5 percent  82   85   89   89   80   42   72   22  
5 to less than 20 percent  87   88   91   88   83   54   81   23  
20 to less than 50 percent  88   93   94   91   81   51   81   30  
50 percent or more  92   93   94   92   87   58   81   27  
                                 
Percent of students eligible for
   free or reduced-price lunch
                               
0–20 percent  84   90   90   91   86   55   85   23  
21–50 percent  87   88   93   90   82   52   79   28  
More than 50 percent  90   93   93   90   83   52   77   25  
                                 
Percent of students below
   15th percentile on
   standardized tests
                               
0–5 percent  88   90   92   91   84   49   82   24  
6–15 percent  87   89   93   90   82   52   80   28  
More than 15 percent  90   94   92   91   86   59   76   24  
                                 
Percent of students likely
   to attend college
                               
0–35 percent  87   90   90   89   79   48   75   27  
36–60 percent  89   91   94   90   82   53   78   28  
More than 60 percent  88   91   93   91   87   55   83   24  
                                 
Percent of students who
   consider academic
   achievement important
                               
0–25 percent  85   87   84   90   79   41   70   20  
26–50 percent  86   93   95   89   78   50   76   27  
51–75 percent  86   88   92   90   84   54   77   25  
More than 75 percent  90   91   93   91   86   55   84   26  
                                 
Percent male enrollment                                 
0–44 percent  90   88   90   84   85   54   81   25  
45–55 percent  88   91   93   92   83   52   80   26  
More than 55 percent  85   90   91   88   86   54   75   26  
                                 
Student-to-FTE ratio5                                 
Less than 12 students  89   91   92   89   84   51   80   23  
12–16 students  87   90   93   93   83   56   80   27  
More than 16 students  87   89   92   89   84   51   79   31  
                                 
Number of classroom changes6                                 
0–3 changes  92   91   88   90   82   55   82   20  
4–6 changes  87   91   94   92   84   53   81   27  
More than 6 changes  84   89   94   88   84   51   76   29  
                                 
Regular use of law enforcement7                                 
Regular use  87   91   95   93   86   60   80   32  
No regular use  88   90   91   88   81   47   79   20  
                                 
Number of serious
   discipline problems8 
                               
No problems  87   89   92   90   82   52   80   24  
1 problem  90   94   95   92   87   55   79   26  
2 problems  89   93   95   90   81   46   76   31  
3 or more problems  86   95   90   90   91   64   78   34  
                                 
Transfers as a percentage
   of enrollment9
                               
Less than 6 percent  87   90   94   90   84   55   84   23  
6 to less than 11 percent  85   87   92   91   82   52   81   24  
11 to less than 21 percent  88   92   93   89   85   52   77   27  
21 percent or more  90   91   91   91   82   53   79   28  
                                 
Prevalence of schoolwide
   disruptions10 
                               
No disruptions  88   90   92   90   83   52   79   25  
Any disruptions  86   91   95   94   84   57   83   36  
                                 
Percent of students
   absent on a daily basis 
                               
0–2 percent  93   91   93   95   88   55   81   21  
3–5 percent  89   90   92   89   83   53   81   25  
6–10 percent  85   91   93   92   83   51   78   27  
More than 10 percent  86   89   89   87   81   56   77   30  
                                 
Prevalence of violent incidents11                                 
No violent incidents  86   85   87   87   78   45   78   21  
Any violent incidents  88   92   94   91   85   55   80   27  
1 For example, social skills training.
2 For example, conflict resolution, peer mediation, or student court.
3 Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
4 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
5 Student-to-FTE ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
6 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
7 Respondents were asked, "During the 2007–08 school year, did you have any security guards, security personnel, or sworn law enforcement officers present at your school at least once a week?"
8 Serious discipline problems include student racial/ethnic tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers other than verbal abuse, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
9 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
10 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
11 Violent incidents include rape or attempted rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because schools may have reported using more than one of these violence prevention program components. Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2007–08 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2008.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education