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Table 18.  Number and percentage distribution of students in public schools involved in physical attacks or fights at school receiving various disciplinary actions, by selected school characteristics: School year 2007–08

  Disciplinary actions taken for students involved in physical attacks or fights1 at school   
  Removals with no continuing services for at least the remainder of the school year   Transfers to specialized schools2   Out-of-school suspensions lasting 5 or more days but less than the remainder of the school year   Other disciplinary actions3
School characteristic  Number of students   Percent of students     Number of students   Percent of students     Number of students   Percent of students     Number of students   Percent of students  
All public schools  11,940   1     45,910   5     213,910   22     682,370   72  
                                       
Level4                                       
Primary  790 ! #     6,260 ! 2     42,290   10     356,050   88  
Middle  3,850   1     14,550   5     71,340   24     203,760   69  
High school  5,730   3     19,990   9     94,140   43     97,310   45  
Combined              6,140   16     25,250   66  
                                       
Enrollment size                                       
Less than 300              9,900   11 !   78,350   83  
300–499    1 !   4,140   2     25,290   14     149,370   83  
500–999  3,820   1     15,300   4     82,180   20     307,550   75  
1,000 or more  5,080   2     22,150   8     96,550   36     147,110   54  
                                       
Urbanicity                                       
City  3,740   1     20,840   6     83,380   23     254,370   70  
Suburb  5,310 ! 2     12,930   5     61,200   21     207,320   72  
Town  650 ! 1 !   4,930   4     23,270   21     81,690   74  
Rural  2,240 ! 1 !   7,200   4     46,070   24     139,000   71  
                                       
Crime level where students live5                                       
High  2,020 ! 1 !   11,920   8     32,900   22     103,260   69  
Moderate  3,480   1     16,720   6     70,910   24     203,560   69  
Low  2,350   1     11,500   3     65,870   19     269,650   77  
Mixed  4,100 ! 3 !   5,760   4     44,230   28     105,910   66  
                                       
Percent of combined Black/African
    American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian,
    Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific
    Islander, and American Indian/
    Alaska Native students
                                     
Less than 5 percent        2,120 ! 3 !   12,300   17     59,450   80  
5 to less than 20 percent  1,680 ! 1 !   4,670   3     36,270   22     120,080   74  
20 to less than 50 percent  3,490 ! 1 !   11,320   5     52,190   22     171,410   72  
50 percent or more  6,380   1     27,810   6     113,150   24     331,430   69  
                                       
Percent of students eligible for
   free or reduced-price lunch
                                     
0–20 percent  2,790 ! 3 !   3,530   3     26,010   25     71,060   69  
21–50 percent  3,010   1     14,250   4     79,290   25     224,510   70  
More than 50 percent  6,150   1     28,130   5     108,620   21     386,800   73  
                                       
Percent of students below
   15th percentile on
   standardized tests
                                     
0–5 percent  1,840   1     8,020   4     40,830   21     144,010   74  
6–15 percent  3,760   1     18,140   4     80,250   20     303,120   75  
More than 15 percent  6,350   2     19,750   6     92,830   26     235,240   66  
                                       
Percent of students likely
   to attend college
                                     
0–35 percent  2,690 ! 1     17,220   6     69,770   23     211,430   70  
36–60 percent  3,930   1     13,480   4     73,890   24     211,960   70  
More than 60 percent  5,320   2     15,200   4     70,250   20     258,980   74  
                                       
Percent of students who
   consider academic
   achievement important
                                     
0–25 percent        6,660   7 !   18,780   21     63,380   70  
26–50 percent  2,680   1     10,030   5     58,700   28     140,280   66  
51–75 percent  3,790   1     18,810   6     78,310   24     223,370   69  
More than 75 percent  4,360 ! 1 !   10,410   3     58,120   18     255,350   78  
                                       
Percent male enrollment                                       
0–44 percent        4,110   5     19,550   26     50,420   67  
45–55 percent  7,970   1     38,230   5     177,210   22     565,670   72  
More than 55 percent  2,500 ! 3 !   3,570   4     17,160   19     66,280   74  
                                       
Student-to-FTE ratio6                                       
Less than 12 students  2,750   1 !   17,380   4     73,220   19     300,430   76  
12–16 students  6,460   2     20,700   6     76,530   22     244,250   70  
More than 16 students  2,740   1     7,820   4     64,160   30     137,690   65  
                                       
Number of classroom changes7                                       
0–3 changes  510 ! #     4,160   2     31,500   18     140,510   80  
4–6 changes  7,810   2     22,730   5     100,020   23     301,570   70  
More than 6 changes  3,630   1     19,010   6     82,390   24     240,290   70  
                                       
Regular use of law enforcement8                                       
Regular use  9,980   2     35,750   6     171,010   27     415,870   66  
No regular use  1,960 ! 1 !   10,160 ! 3 !   42,900   13     266,500   83  
                                       
Number of serious
   discipline problems9 
                                     
No problems  3,600   1     19,710   5     90,500   21     309,880   73  
1 problem  3,010   1     10,480   4     53,030   21     188,260   74  
2 problems        5,750   5     28,350   25     78,070   68  
3 or more problems  3,360 ! 2 !   9,970   6     42,040   26     106,160   66  
                                       
Transfers as a percentage
   of enrollment10 
                                     
Less than 6 percent  2,790 ! 3 !   3,090   3     23,790   23     72,460   71  
6 to less than 11 percent  3,320 ! 2 !   5,290   3     44,680   26     115,780   68  
11 to less than 21 percent  2,960 ! 1 !   13,030   4     65,810   23     207,820   72  
21 percent or more  2,870   1     24,510   6     79,640   20     286,310   73  
                                       
Prevalence of schoolwide
   disruptions11 
                                     
No disruptions  8,910   1     36,950   4     178,310   22     599,800   73  
Any disruptions  3,030 ! 2 !   8,960   7     35,600   27     82,580   63  
                                       
Percent of students
   absent on a daily basis 
                                     
0–2 percent        3,000 ! 6 !   7,150   13     42,460   79  
3–5 percent  3,500   1     16,520   4     71,980   18     317,660   78  
6–10 percent  5,160   1     20,510   5     97,620   25     262,580   68  
More than 10 percent  2,270 ! 2 !   5,880   6     37,170   35     59,670   57  
#Rounds to zero.
!Interpret data with caution. The standard error for this estimate is from 30 percent to 50 percent of the estimate’s value.
‡Reporting standards not met. The standard error for this estimate is equal to 50 percent or more of the estimate's value.
1 Physical attack or fight was defined for respondents as "an actual and intentional touching or striking of another person against his or her will, or the intentional causing of bodily harm to an individual."
2 Specialized school was defined for respondents as "a school that is specifically for students who were referred for disciplinary reasons, although the school may also have students who were referred for other reasons. The school may be at the same location as your school."
3 Other disciplinary actions include suspension less than 5 days, detention, etc.
4 Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
5 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
6 Student-to-FTE ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
7 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
8 Respondents were asked, "During the 2007–08 school year, did you have any security guards, security personnel, or sworn law enforcement officers present at your school at least once a week?"
9 Serious discipline problems include student racial/ethnic tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers other than verbal abuse, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
10 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
11 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
NOTE: "At school" was defined for respondents to include activities that happen in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities.
Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. The number of incidents, students, or disciplinary actions reported for a specified offense will not always be equal. This may be because a single incident could involve multiple students or because no disciplinary action is taken for an incident. Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2007–08 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2008.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education