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Table 8.  Number and percentage of public schools reporting incidents of hate crime, gang-related crime, and gang-related hate crime at school, the number of incidents reported, and the rate of incidents per 1,000 students, by selected school characteristics: School year 2007–08

  Hate crime1      Gang-related crime2      Gang-related hate crime1,2   
School characteristic  Num-
ber of schools
  Per-
cent of schools
  Num-
ber of incidents
  Rate per 1,000 students     Num-
ber of schools
  Per-
cent of schools
  Num-
ber of incidents
  Rate per 1,000 students     Num-
ber of schools
  Per-
cent of schools
  Num-
ber of incidents
  Rate per 1,000 students  
All public schools  3,130 4 9,220 0.2 5,210 6 38,350 0.8 760 1 3,120 0.1
 
Level3 
Primary  990 2 1,950 0.1 1,010 2 5,800 ! 0.3 !
Middle  880 6 3,830 0.4 1,850 12 14,740 1.5 280 2 1,550 ! 0.2 !
High school  1,100 9 3,200 0.3 2,220 19 17,370 1.4 310 3 1,410 0.1
Combined 
 
Enrollment size 
Less than 300  500 ! 3 ! 760 ! 0.2 ! 520 ! 3 ! 2,030 ! 0.5 !
300–499  500 ! 2 ! 1,740 ! 0.2 ! 510 2 1,800 ! 0.2 !
500–999  1,090 4 3,810 ! 0.2 ! 2,030 7 14,760 0.7 240 ! 1 ! 740 ! #
1,000 or more  1,040 11 2,900 0.2 2,160 23 19,770 1.4 320 3 1,520 0.1
 
Urbanicity 
City  1,000 5 3,380 ! 0.2 ! 2,690 13 20,300 1.5 420 2 1,840 0.1
Suburb  1,050 4 2,580 0.2 1,250 5 10,970 0.7 200 ! 1 ! 380 #
Town  290 ! 3 ! 1,610 ! 0.3 ! 560 5 2,900 0.5 80 ! 1 !
Rural  790 3 1,650 0.1 710 3 4,180 0.4 60 ! # !
 
Crime level where students live4 
High  440 ! 7 ! 1,080 ! 0.3 ! 920 15 10,600 3.0 150 ! 2 ! 810 ! 0.2 !
Moderate  760 5 1,930 0.2 2,080 12 17,580 1.7 190 1 890 ! 0.1 !
Low  1,510 3 5,240 0.2 1,120 2 5,610 0.2 310 ! 1 ! 1,120 ! !
Mixed  410 4 970 0.1 1,090 10 4,560 0.6 120 1 300 ! !
 
Percent of combined Black/African
    American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian,
    Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific
    Islander, and American Indian/
    Alaska Native students
Less than 5 percent  570 ! 4 ! 860 0.2 80 ! 1 100 ! # # # #
5 to less than 20 percent  600 3 1,830 0.2 430 2 1,450 0.1
20 to less than 50 percent  720 4 2,610 0.2 1,190 6 6,300 0.5 220 ! 1 ! 720 ! 0.1 !
50 percent or more  1,240 5 3,920 0.2 3,510 13 30,490 1.7 360 1 1,750 0.1
 
Percent of students eligible for
   free or reduced-price lunch
0–20 percent  650 4 2,010 ! 0.2 500 3 2,010 0.2 70 ! # !
21–50 percent  1,090 4 2,870 0.2 1,360 5 8,910 0.5 260 ! 1 ! 630 #
More than 50 percent  1,390 4 4,330 0.2 3,350 10 27,430 1.5 430 1 1,820 0.1
 
Percent of students below
   15th percentile on
   standardized tests
0–5 percent  710 3 1,980 0.1 810 3 4,740 ! 0.3 ! 110 ! # !
6–15 percent  1,240 4 3,360 0.2 1,930 6 13,070 0.7 260 ! 1 ! 820 ! #
More than 15 percent  1,180 6 3,880 0.3 2,470 12 20,530 1.6 400 2 1,630 0.1
 
Percent of students likely
   to attend college
0–35 percent  910 4 3,540 ! 0.3 ! 2,270 11 17,780 1.7 310 2 1,620 0.2 !
36–60 percent  870 4 1,640 0.1 1,350 6 12,010 1.0 200 ! 1 ! 510 ! #
More than 60 percent  1,350 3 4,040 0.2 1,600 4 8,560 0.3 250 ! 1 !
 
Percent of students who
   consider academic
   achievement important
0–25 percent  440 ! 8 ! 1,350 0.5 660 12 6,020 2.2 170 ! 3 ! 760 ! 0.3 !
26–50 percent  610 4 2,460 ! 0.3 ! 1,390 10 10,680 1.4 70 ! 1 !
51–75 percent  810 3 2,310 0.2 1,600 7 12,650 0.9 260 ! 1 ! 650 ! # !
More than 75 percent  1,280 3 3,100 0.1 1,570 4 9,000 0.4 260 ! 1 ! 1,080 ! # !
 
Percent male enrollment 
0–44 percent  140 ! 2 ! 300 ! 0.1 ! 330 4 3,050 ! 0.8 !
45–55 percent  2,670 4 7,930 0.2 4,140 6 30,320 0.8 570 1 2,470 0.1
More than 55 percent  320 ! 3 ! 1,000 ! 0.2 ! 750 ! 7 ! 4,980 ! 1.1 ! 150 ! 2 600 ! 0.1 !
 
Student-to-FTE ratio5 
Less than 12 students  1,170 3 3,230 0.2 1,930 5 11,260 0.6 290 1 1,310 ! 0.1 !
12–16 students  990 4 3,620 ! 0.2 ! 1,980 7 15,440 0.8 300 ! 1 ! 980 ! 0.1 !
More than 16 students  980 8 2,370 0.2 1,300 11 11,640 1.2 170 1 830 ! 0.1 !
 
Number of classroom changes6 
0–3 changes  760 ! 3 ! 1,490 ! 0.2 ! 700 ! 3 ! 2,310 ! 0.2 !
4–6 changes  1,210 3 3,390 0.2 2,420 7 21,850 1.0 330 1 1,320 ! 0.1 !
More than 6 changes  1,160 5 4,330 0.3 2,090 8 14,190 0.9 340 1 1,700 ! 0.1 !
 
Regular use of law enforcement7 
Regular use  2,310 6 7,700 0.3 4,200 11 35,590 1.2 570 2 2,910 0.1
No regular use  820 2 1,520 0.1 1,010 2 2,760 ! 0.1 !
 
Number of serious
   discipline problems8 
No problems  1,250 2 2,090 0.1 1,780 3 8,620 0.3 260 ! 1 ! 410 ! #
1 problem  810 5 2,530 0.2 1,050 7 7,280 0.7 100 ! 1 ! 260 ! #
2 problems  450 9 1,730 ! 0.5 ! 860 17 5,230 ! 1.5 120 ! 2 ! 1,030 ! 0.3 !
3 or more problems  610 13 2,870 ! 0.7 ! 1,520 32 17,220 4.4 270 6 1,440 0.4 !
 
Transfers as a percentage
   of enrollment9 
Less than 6 percent  600 3 2,220 ! 0.2 ! 700 4 4,490 ! 0.4 ! 80 ! #
6 to less than 11 percent  590 4 1,270 0.1 1,020 6 4,820 0.5
11 to less than 21 percent  1,090 4 2,690 0.2 1,390 6 11,630 0.8 240 ! 1 ! 560 ! #
21 percent or more  850 4 3,030 0.2 2,100 9 17,410 1.3 400 2 2,300 0.2
 
Prevalence of schoolwide
   disruptions10 
No disruptions  2,680 4 7,980 0.2 4,220 6 27,840 0.7 480 1 1,940 #
Any disruptions  450 7 1,240 0.2 990 16 10,510 2.0 280 ! 5 ! 1,180 ! 0.2 !
 
Percent of students
   absent on a daily basis 
0–2 percent  380 ! 5 !
3–5 percent  1,630 4 5,080 0.2 1,730 4 11,010 0.4 360 1 1,730 ! 0.1 !
6–10 percent  940 4 3,000 0.2 2,190 9 18,500 1.2 300 ! 1 ! 880 0.1
More than 10 percent  380 7 680 0.2 900 18 6,560 2.1
#Rounds to zero.
!Interpret data with caution. The standard error for this estimate is from 30 percent to 50 percent of the estimate’s value.
‡ Reporting standards not met. The standard error for this estimate is equal to 50 percent or more of the estimate's value.
1 A hate crime was defined for respondents as "a criminal offense or threat against a person, property, or society that is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender's bias against a race, color, national origin, ethnicity, gender, religion, disability, or sexual orientation."
2 Gang was defined for respondents as "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols, or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior."
3 Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
4 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and students come from areas with very different levels of crime.
5 Student-to-FTE ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
6 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
7 Respondents were asked, "During the 2007–08 school year, did you have any security guards, security personnel, or sworn law enforcement officers present at your school at least once a week?"
8 Serious discipline problems include student racial/ethnic tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect other than verbal abuse, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
9 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
10 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
NOTE: "At school" was defined for respondents to include activities happening in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2007–08 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2008.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
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