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Table 31.  Percentage of public schools reporting that their efforts to reduce or prevent crime at school were limited in a major or minor way due to specified non-school-level factors, by selected school characteristics: School year 2005–06
 
School characteristic Inadequate funds Fear of district or state reprisal Federal, state, or district policies on disciplining special education students1 Other federal policies on discipline and safety Other state or district policies on discipline and safety
All public schools  51 13 45 24 23
           
Level2           
Primary  45 11 38 20 20
Middle  59 16 54 30 30
High school  63 16 55 29 28
Combined  52 16 48 29 27
           
Enrollment size           
Less than 300  46 14 39 24 22
300–499  49 11 41 21 21
500–999  52 13 47 24 24
1,000 or more  64 16 59 33 32
           
Urbanicity           
City  54 16 49 28 29
Urban fringe  46 10 40 18 19
Town  60 21 48 29 27
Rural  50 12 45 25 22
           
Crime level where students live3           
High  56 19 48 27 32
Moderate  59 20 51 31 30
Low  47 11 42 22 20
Mixed  51 9 48 22 23
           
Percent minority enrollment4           
Less than 5 percent  47 11 42 22 21
5 to 20 percent  49 9 42 19 18
20 to 50 percent  48 13 47 27 25
50 percent or more  55 18 46 26 28
           
Percent of students           
eligible for free or           
reduced-price lunch           
0–20 percent  44 8 36 17 17
21–50 percent  51 12 49 26 25
More than 50 percent  54 16 46 26 26
           
Percent of students below 15th           
percentile on standardized tests           
0–5 percent  42 10 39 19 18
6–15 percent  53 12 46 25 24
More than 15 percent  59 20 50 30 30
           
Percent of students likely           
to attend college           
0–35 percent  60 16 52 28 29
36–60 percent  50 13 47 26 25
More than 60 percent  46 11 39 20 19
           
Percent of students who consider           
academic achievement important          
0–25 percent  60 22 54 31 32
26–50 percent  58 17 49 29 29
51–75 percent  56 14 51 26 25
More than 75 percent  43 10 37 19 19
           
Percent male enrollment           
0–44 percent  56 16 42 24 24
45–55 percent  51 12 46 24 24
More than 55 percent  47 17 39 23 20
           
Student-to-FTE ratio5           
Less than 12 students  48 14 42 24 23
12–16 students  52 12 48 25 25
More than 16 students  55 12 45 21 22
           
Number of classroom changes6           
0–3 changes  44 12 36 20 20
4–6 changes  50 12 47 24 23
More than 6 changes  57 15 49 28 26
           
Regular use of law enforcement7          
Regular use  59 16 53 29 29
No regular use  45 11 39 21 20
           
Number of serious           
discipline problems8           
No problems  44 10 39 20 18
1 problem  59 17 50 31 30
2 problems  64 19 58 31 36
3 or more problems  74 26 68 39 40
           
Transfers as a percentage           
of enrollment9           
0 to 6 percent  46 12 38 20 19
6 to 11 percent  49 9 42 22 20
11 to 21 percent  51 13 47 26 24
21 percent or more  54 16 48 26 28
           
Prevalence of schoolwide           
disruptions10           
No disruptions  49 13 44 23 23
Any disruptions  68 18 56 34 36
           
Percent of students           
absent on a daily basis           
0–2 percent  43 6 29 14 15
3–5 percent  48 12 44 24 23
6–10 percent  56 16 50 28 28
More than 10 percent  58 20 49 24 25
           
Prevalence of violent incidents11          
No violent incidents  27 7 24 12 10
Any violent incidents  58 15 51 27 27
1 A special education student was defined for respondents as "a child with a disability, defined as mental retardation, hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness), serious emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities, and who needs special education and related services and receives these under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)."
2 Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
3 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
4 Responding schools that did not have race/ethnicity on the sampling frame (2 percent of schools) are excluded from the base.
5 Student-to-FTE ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
6 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
7 Respondents were asked, "During the 2005–2006 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school at least once a week?"
8 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
9 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
10 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
11 Violent incidents include rape or attempted rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to rate the level of limitation in their school’s efforts to reduce or prevent crime for each factor. Survey response options included “limit in major way,” “limit in minor way,” or “does not limit." The estimates in this table represent only those schools that reported limitations in a major or minor way. Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2005–06 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2006.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education