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Table 22.  Percentage of public schools reporting the use of selected violence prevention program components, by selected school characteristics: School year 2005–06
  Percentage of schools using selected violence prevention program components 
School characteristic Pre-
vention curri-
culum, instruc-
tion, or train-
ing for students1
  Behav-
ioral or behavior modi-
fication inter-
vention for stu-
dents
  Counsel-
ing, social work, psycho-
logical, or therapeutic activity for students
  Individual attention, mentoring, tutoring, or coach-
ing of students by stu-
dents or adults
  Recrea-
tional, enrich-
ment, or leisure activities for students
  Students’ involvement in resolving student conduct problems2   Programs to promote a sense of com-
munity or social inte-
gration among students
  Hotline or tipline for stu-
dents to report problems
 
All public schools  87   90   92   91   83   56   79   27  
                                 
Level3                                 
Primary  90   94   92   92   83   57   80   19  
Middle  88   90   95   92   87   58   81   37  
High school  74   79   90   88   82   54   75   44  
Combined  81   82   83   84   82   42   74   37  
                                 
Enrollment size                                 
Less than 300  84   85   87   86   77   52   73   21  
300–499  89   91   93   92   83   55   79   22  
500–999  88   92   92   92   87   54   82   29  
1,000 or more  83   89   94   92   88   69   81   49  
                                 
Urbanicity                                 
City  88   93   93   94   89   67   83   29  
Urban fringe  90   92   94   93   84   56   83   25  
Town  85   90   92   88   85   48   75   27  
Rural  83   85   88   87   78   49   72   28  
                                 
Crime level where
    students live4 
                               
High  91   95   93   93   86   63   80   29  
Moderate  88   94   93   92   86   59   80   31  
Low  86   87   90   90   81   53   78   26  
Mixed  88   94   95   92   89   59   82   27  
                                 
Percent minority
    enrollment5 
                               
Less than 5 percent  84   87   89   92   80   50   72   27  
5 to 20 percent  85   85   92   87   82   53   78   26  
20 to 50 percent  90   92   92   92   83   54   81   29  
50 percent or more  88   93   92   92   86   63   81   27  
                                 
Percent of students
    eligible for free
    or reduced-price
    lunch
                               
0–20 percent  85   85   91   88   84   57   81   25  
21–50 percent  87   90   92   92   82   52   77   28  
More than 50 percent  88   92   92   91   84   57   79   28  
                                 
Percent of students
    below 15th per-
    centile on stan-
    dardized tests 
                               
0–5 percent  85   87   89   90   82   56   79   23  
6–15 percent  88   90   94   91   85   54   80   27  
More than 15 percent  87   93   92   91   83   58   76   33  
                                 
Percent of students
    likely to attend
    college 
                               
0–35 percent  90   93   93   91   81   55   76   29  
36–60 percent  84   88   92   89   83   51   78   27  
More than 60 percent  87   89   91   92   85   59   81   26  
                                 
Percent of students
    who consider
    academic achieve-
    ment important 
                               
0–25 percent  88   92   88   86   83   52   67   33  
26–50 percent  87   89   91   89   79   49   77   27  
51–75 percent  83   89   92   91   85   55   76   29  
More than 75 percent  89   91   92   92   84   60   83   25  
                                 
Percent male enrollment                                 
0–44 percent  87   92   94   93   90   57   88   28  
45–55 percent  86   89   92   91   83   55   78   28  
More than 55 percent  89   96   90   86   81   58   77   24  
                                 
Student-to-FTE ratio6                                 
Less than 12 students  86   90   91   90   82   55   77   25  
12–16 students  86   89   94   92   85   56   80   30  
More than 16 students  89   91   90   91   85   58   79   30  
                                 
Number of class-
    room changes7 
                               
0–3 changes  86   92   89   88   79   58   77   22  
4–6 changes  88   91   94   94   85   56   81   28  
More than 6 changes  85   87   90   89   84   53   77   31  
                                 
Regular use of law
    enforcement8 
                               
Regular use  87   90   95   93   89   62   82   40  
No regular use  86   89   89   89   79   51   76   18  
                                 
Number of serious
    discipline pro-
    blems9
                               
No problems  87   89   90   90   81   53   79   25  
1 problem  86   89   94   93   89   63   77   31  
2 problems  88   94   95   93   86   59   80   31  
3 or more problems  85   92   95   91   87   61   74   34  
                                 
Transfers as a per-
    centage of enroll-
    ment10 
                               
0 to 6 percent  83   86   88   87   83   51   76   20  
6 to 11 percent  90   89   92   94   84   57   84   32  
11 to 21 percent  85   90   93   89   83   56   78   27  
21 percent or more  88   92   92   93   84   57   78   29  
                                 
Prevalence of school-
    wide disruptions11 
                               
No disruptions  86   90   91   90   83   55   78   27  
Any disruptions  91   93   96   95   85   62   82   35  
                                 
Percent of students
    absent on a
    daily basis 
                               
0–2 percent  87   87   85   87   83   56   82   18  
3–5 percent  88   90   93   92   83   56   81   28  
6–10 percent  85   90   93   90   83   53   73   31  
More than 10 percent  85   90   89   87   87   63   80   24  
                                 
Prevalence of
    violent incidents12 
                               
No violent incidents  87   89   86   86   80   58   78   15  
Any violent incidents  87   90   93   92   84   55   79   31  
1 For example, social skills training.
2 For example, conflict resolution, peer mediation, or student court.
3 Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
4 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
5Responding schools that did not have race/ethnicity on the sampling frame (2 percent of schools) are excluded from the base.
6 Student-to-FTE ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
7 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
8 Respondents were asked, "During the 2005–2006 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school at least once a week?"
9 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
10 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
11 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
12 Violent incidents include rape or attempted rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. Detail may not sum to totals, because schools may have reported using more than one of these violence prevention program components.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2005–06 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2006.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education