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Table 31.  Percentage of public schools reporting that their efforts to reduce or prevent crime at school were limited due to specified non-school-level factors, by selected school characteristics: School year 2003–04


School characteristic Inadequate funds Fear of district or state reprisal Federal, state, or district policies on disciplining special education students1 Other federal policies on discipline and safety Other state or district policies on discipline and safety
All public schools  58 15 59 28 26
           
Level2           
Primary  54 13 54 22 22
Middle  64 17 70 32 32
High school  65 16 67 37 34
Combined  64 18 65 43 37
           
Enrollment size           
Less than 300  55 14 52 22 21
300–499  58 14 55 25 23
500–999  57 13 64 30 29
1,000 or more  68 21 70 39 39
           
Urbanicity           
City  60 20 64 31 31
Urban fringe  55 12 56 25 24
Town  65 15 67 33 32
Rural  56 13 56 26 24
           
Crime level where students live3           
High  64 32 75 41 44
Moderate  67 20 65 35 34
Low  53 10 54 23 21
Mixed  66 19 67 31 29
           
Percent minority enrollment4           
Less than 5 percent  61 9 58 26 25
5 to 20 percent  53 10 52 23 21
20 to 50 percent  55 16 57 25 23
50 percent or more  61 21 66 33 34
           
Percent of students
eligible for free or
reduced-price lunch 
         
0–20 percent  44 6 47 17 17
21–50 percent  64 14 62 29 27
More than 50 percent  61 20 64 32 32
           
Percent of students below 15th
percentile on standardized tests 
         
0–5 percent  47 8 51 23 21
6–15 percent  58 15 59 26 25
More than 15 percent  69 20 68 35 34
           
Percent of students likely
to attend college 
         
0–35 percent  64 19 64 33 32
36–60 percent  61 14 65 30 27
More than 60 percent  51 11 51 22 21
           
Percent of students who consider
academic achievement important 
         
0–25 percent  69 26 67 38 40
26–50 percent  64 19 63 31 29
51–75 percent  62 14 65 31 27
More than 75 percent  49 10 51 21 21
           
Percent male enrollment           
0–44 percent  65 25 58 41 39
45–55 percent  58 14 60 26 26
More than 55 percent  56 17 53 30 25
           
Student-to-teacher ratio5           
Less than 12 students  55 14 56 27 24
12–16 students  58 16 63 28 29
More than 16 students  65 13 61 28 26
           
Number of classroom changes6           
0–3 changes  48 15 47 23 23
4–6 changes  59 15 62 28 26
More than 6 changes  65 15 66 31 30
           
Regular use of law enforcement7           
Regular use  58 16 62 30 30
No regular use  58 13 57 26 24
           
Number of serious
discipline problems8 
         
No problems  51 11 52 23 21
1 problem  66 16 68 31 30
2 problems  74 20 72 35 35
3 or more problems  78 31 81 49 50
           
Transfers as a percentage
of enrollment9 
         
0 to 6 percent  53 14 56 26 25
6 to 11 percent  53 11 53 24 23
11 to 21 percent  60 13 59 30 27
21 percent or more  63 19 67 29 29
           
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions10 
         
No disruptions  57 14 59 27 25
Any disruptions  68 26 66 40 42
           
Percent of students
absent on a daily basis 
         
0–2 percent  43 11 49 25 22
3–5 percent  56 12 56 25 24
6–10 percent  66 19 68 33 33
More than 10 percent  56 21 58 35 30
           
Prevalence of violent incidents11           
No violent incidents  38 9 40 16 16
Any violent incidents  62 16 64 30 29
1 A special education student was defined for respondents as "a child with a disability, defined as mental retardation, hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness), serious emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities, and who needs special education and related services and receives these under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)."
2 Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
3 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
4 These estimates exclude data from Tennessee because schools in this state did not report estimates of student race.
5 Student-to-teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
6 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
7 Respondents were asked, "During the 2003–2004 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on a regular basis?"
8 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
9 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
10 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
11 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Reponses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education