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Table 30.  Percentage of public schools reporting that their efforts to reduce or prevent crime at school were limited in a major or minor way due to specified school-level factors, by selected school characteristics: School year 2003–04


School characteristic Lack of or inadequate teacher training in classroom management Lack of or inadequate alternative placements for disruptive students Likelihood of complaints from parents Lack of teacher support for school policies Lack of parental support for school policies Teachers' fear of student retaliation Fear of litigation Inconsistent application of school policies
All public schools  37 59 28 18 42 15 27 41
                 
Level1                 
Primary  31 58 27 14 38 11 23 36
Middle  41 67 30 23 49 18 32 46
High school  45 59 28 30 47 28 32 52
Combined  50 53 29 19 38 18 39 52
                 
Enrollment size                 
Less than 300  32 50 28 13 37 14 25 38
300–499  35 60 25 16 37 14 28 41
500–999  37 63 28 20 45 13 25 41
1,000 or more  48 67 33 34 51 27 35 55
                 
Urbanicity                 
City  48 70 32 27 51 19 27 54
Urban fringe  31 57 25 14 38 13 25 36
Town  37 63 30 22 46 19 38 47
Rural  33 52 26 15 36 13 26 35
                 
Crime level where students live2                 
High  68 76 41 39 74 30 36 67
Moderate  46 70 33 26 54 20 34 55
Low  28 53 24 13 33 11 24 33
Mixed  43 66 30 20 46 18 27 47
                 
Percent minority enrollment3                 
Less than 5 percent  31 54 27 12 33 12 25 35
5 to 20 percent  29 54 24 14 36 11 23 34
20 to 50 percent  34 57 24 17 42 13 28 39
50 percent or more  49 69 33 28 52 22 30 54
                 
Percent of students
eligible for free or
reduced-price lunch 
               
0–20 percent  23 47 21 10 28 9 18 28
21–50 percent  35 60 29 16 40 15 27 39
More than 50 percent  46 65 30 25 51 19 32 51
                 
Percent of students below 15th
percentile on standardized tests 
               
0–5 percent  22 49 22 12 35 10 20 29
6–15 percent  35 58 26 18 37 14 25 40
More than 15 percent  53 73 35 26 55 21 36 56
                 
Percent of students likely
to attend college 
               
0–35 percent  45 66 33 24 51 21 33 51
36–60 percent  39 63 25 18 42 15 28 41
More than 60 percent  28 51 25 14 34 11 22 34
                 
Percent of students who consider
academic achievement important 
               
0–25 percent  48 68 36 28 63 24 39 52
26–50 percent  48 68 29 23 47 20 31 52
51–75 percent  39 63 26 19 42 14 28 45
More than 75 percent  25 50 26 13 33 11 21 30
                 
Percent male enrollment                 
0–44 percent  46 57 31 20 41 16 33 42
45–55 percent  36 60 28 19 41 15 27 41
More than 55 percent  37 53 24 15 45 14 23 43
                 
Student-to-teacher ratio4                 
Less than 12 students  36 56 26 17 40 14 29 40
12–16 students  35 61 29 19 43 16 26 40
More than 16 students  42 65 29 21 44 15 25 46
                 
Number of classroom changes5                 
0–3 changes  31 56 27 17 35 12 22 34
4–6 changes  38 59 28 19 44 14 27 45
More than 6 changes  40 63 27 20 44 20 34 43
                 
Regular use of law enforcement6                 
Regular use  42 63 31 23 46 20 29 46
No regular use  32 56 25 15 38 12 26 38
                 
Number of serious
discipline problems7 
               
No problems  27 51 23 12 34 11 23 30
1 problem  47 71 32 21 47 17 29 52
2 problems  55 75 35 36 61 25 38 70
3 or more problems  67 81 46 41 70 36 46 74
                 
Transfers as a percentage
of enrollment8 
               
0 to 6 percent  30 54 27 18 36 15 23 35
6 to 11 percent  33 57 25 17 37 15 28 40
11 to 21 percent  38 61 27 17 44 12 28 39
21 percent or more  43 63 30 21 45 18 28 50
                 
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions9 
               
No disruptions  36 59 27 17 40 15 26 40
Any disruptions  51 64 36 34 60 26 37 60
                 
Percent of students
absent on a daily basis 
               
0–2 percent  19 49 25 13 33 16 19 24
3–5 percent  33 57 25 15 38 11 25 37
6–10 percent  46 68 32 25 51 20 33 55
More than 10 percent  50 60 34 28 42 25 31 48
                 
Prevalence of violent incidents10                 
No violent incidents  18 35 20 9 23 6 16 20
Any violent incidents  41 65 29 21 46 17 30 46
1 Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
2 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
3 These estimates exclude data from Tennessee because schools in this state did not report estimates of student race.
4 Student-to-teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
5 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
6 Respondents were asked, "During the 2003–2004 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on a regular basis?"
7 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
8 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
9 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
10 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Reponses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education