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Table 22.  Percentage of public schools reporting the use of selected violence prevention program components, by selected school characteristics: School year 2003–04


School characteristic   Percentage of schools using selected violence prevention program components
Prevention curriculum, instruction, or training for students1 Behavioral or behavior modification intervention for students Counseling, social work, psychological, or therapeutic activity for students or adults Individual attention, mentoring, tutoring, or coach-
ing of students by students or adults
Recreational, enrichment, or leisure activities for students Students' involvement in resolving student conduct problems2 Programs to promote a sense of community or social integration among students Hotline or tipline for students to report problems
All public schools  87 91 93 92 83 57 82 31
                 
Level3                 
Primary  91 93 93 93 83 56 83 24
Middle  88 92 95 93 89 58 81 41
High school  74 84 93 90 80 58 75 50
Combined  83 89 85 89 82 57 82 35
                 
Enrollment size                 
Less than 300  86 89 88 90 80 54 80 27
300–499  89 93 93 92 82 53 81 23
500–999  89 92 94 94 87 58 83 34
1,000 or more  82 89 95 93 84 71 84 54
                 
Urbanicity                 
City  89 95 94 95 87 63 84 34
Urban fringe  88 92 92 93 83 60 85 32
Town  85 88 95 91 81 53 80 31
Rural  86 90 91 89 82 50 76 29
                 
Crime level where
students live4 
               
High  91 95 99 97 90 58 84 37
Moderate  86 95 94 93 84 61 78 31
Low  87 90 92 91 83 55 81 31
Mixed  88 93 93 93 83 60 87 30
                 
Percent minority
enrollment5 
               
Less than 5 percent  86 89 91 87 82 51 75 32
5 to 20 percent  89 91 92 90 82 56 86 33
20 to 50 percent  88 93 94 95 84 62 82 30
50 percent or more  86 91 93 95 86 60 83 31
                 
Percent of students
eligible for free or
reduced-price lunch 
               
0–20 percent  87 92 92 93 85 60 86 33
21–50 percent  87 91 92 92 83 55 78 32
More than 50 percent  87 92 94 92 83 57 82 30
                 
Percent of students
below 15th percentile on
standardized tests 
               
0–5 percent  89 92 93 94 87 58 85 31
6–15 percent  87 91 93 91 81 56 81 31
More than 15 percent  87 92 93 92 83 57 79 33
                 
Percent of students likely
to attend college 
               
0–35 percent  88 93 92 92 82 58 80 30
36–60 percent  87 91 93 92 82 54 78 31
More than 60 percent  87 90 93 92 85 59 85 33
                 
Percent of students
who consider academic
achievement important 
               
0–25 percent  86 93 91 93 84 65 75 31
26–50 percent  86 92 92 91 79 51 80 29
51–75 percent  86 90 94 92 83 53 80 33
More than 75 percent  90 92 92 93 86 61 86 32
                 
Percent male enrollment                 
0–44 percent  82 90 84 91 84 58 77 37
45–55 percent  88 91 94 93 84 58 81 32
More than 55 percent  89 93 91 90 80 53 88 22
                 
Student-to-teacher ratio6                 
Less than 12 students  88 91 92 90 82 55 82 29
12–16 students  88 92 94 94 84 58 81 34
More than 16 students  87 90 91 93 85 61 83 32
                 
Number of classroom
changes7 
               
0–3 changes  91 93 93 93 80 61 84 24
4–6 changes  87 91 93 92 84 54 81 31
More than 6 changes  84 90 92 92 85 59 80 40
                 
Regular use of
law enforcement8 
               
Regular use  88 91 95 93 85 61 83 39
No regular use  87 92 91 91 82 54 80 25
                 
Number of serious
discipline problems9 
               
No problems  88 90 92 92 83 56 81 29
1 problem  87 93 94 93 82 57 83 31
2 problems  89 96 96 92 87 58 81 40
3 or more problems  82 91 95 94 83 61 80 40
                 
Transfers as a percentage
of enrollment10 
               
0 to 6 percent  87 92 91 90 86 58 84 31
6 to 11 percent  88 90 94 91 83 55 81 31
11 to 21 percent  88 91 92 91 85 58 82 32
21 percent or more  87 92 94 95 81 56 80 31
                 
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions11 
               
No disruptions  88 91 93 92 83 57 82 31
Any disruptions  81 92 95 93 86 60 77 38
                 
Percent of students
absent on a daily basis 
               
0–2 percent  87 87 89 94 85 62 87 27
3–5 percent  89 92 94 92 83 55 81 29
6–10 percent  85 92 93 91 83 58 80 36
More than 10 percent  88 92 89 95 87 67 84 37
                 
Prevalence of
violent incidents12 
               
No violent incidents  90 91 89 89 76 57 83 24
Any violent incidents  87 92 93 93 85 57 81 33
1 For example, social skills training.
2 For example, conflict resolution, peer mediation, or student court.
3 Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
4 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
5 These estimates exclude data from Tennessee because schools in this state did not report estimates of student race.
6 Student-to-teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
7 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
8 Respondents were asked, "During the 2003–2004 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on a regular basis?"
9 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
10 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
11 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
12 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Reponses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education