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Table 19.  Percentage of public schools reporting the use of selected practices to involve parents in school discipline, by selected school characteristics: School year 2003–04


School characteristic Have a formal process to obtain parent input on policies related to school crime and discipline   Provide training or technical assistance to parents in dealing with students' problem behavior   Have a program that involves parents at school helping to maintain school discipline
All public schools  59   50   21
           
Level1           
Primary  58   55   24
Middle  60   49   19
High school  59   38   17
Combined  59   38   13
           
Enrollment size           
Less than 300  58   46   21
300–499  53   48   17
500–999  62   53   23
1,000 or more  64   53   26
           
Urbanicity           
City  61   60   31
Urban fringe  63   52   20
Town  52   41   13
Rural  55   43   17
           
Crime level where students live2           
High  67   57   31
Moderate  59   54   26
Low  57   48   17
Mixed  63   54   25
           
Percent minority enrollment3           
Less than 5 percent  47   40   13
5 to 20 percent  57   49   16
20 to 50 percent  62   51   22
50 percent or more  67   57   30
           
Percent of students
eligible for free or
reduced-price lunch 
         
0–20 percent  55   49   17
21–50 percent  58   47   18
More than 50 percent  62   54   26
           
Percent of students below 15th
percentile on standardized tests 
         
0–5 percent  59   48   19
6–15 percent  58   52   18
More than 15 percent  60   50   27
           
Percent of students likely
to attend college 
         
0–35 percent  57   48   22
36–60 percent  59   49   21
More than 60 percent  61   53   21
           
Percent of students who consider
academic achievement important 
         
0–25 percent  55   45   18
26–50 percent  57   46   21
51–75 percent  57   49   21
More than 75 percent  62   54   21
           
Percent male enrollment           
0–44 percent  56   43   24
45–55 percent  59   51   20
More than 55 percent  59   48   25
           
Student-to-teacher ratio4           
Less than 12 students  62   48   19
12–16 students  55   53   22
More than 16 students  58   50   24
           
Number of classroom changes5           
0–3 changes  58   56   24
4–6 changes  59   51   21
More than 6 changes  59   43   18
           
Regular use of law enforcement6           
Regular use  59   51   23
No regular use  59   50   19
           
Number of serious
discipline problems7 
         
No problems  60   52   22
1 problem  54   46   19
2 problems  58   43   23
3 or more problems  61   54   18
           
Transfers as a percentage
of enrollment8 
         
0 to 6 percent  58   49   20
6 to 11 percent  57   51   24
11 to 21 percent  60   48   19
21 percent or more  60   53   22
           
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions9 
         
No disruptions  58   50   21
Any disruptions  67   48   20
           
Percent of students
absent on a daily basis 
         
0–2 percent  57   54   20
3–5 percent  58   50   19
6–10 percent  60   49   23
More than 10 percent  62   48   33
           
Prevalence of violent incidents10           
No violent incidents  61   52   20
Any violent incidents  58   50   21
1 Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
2 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
3 These estimates exclude data from Tennessee because schools in this state did not report estimates of student race.
4 Student-to-teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
5 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
6 Respondents were asked, "During the 2003–2004 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on a regular basis?"
7 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
8 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
9 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
10 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Reponses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education