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Table 17.  Number of students involved in the distribution, possession, or use of alcohol or illegal drugs at school, and the number and percentage of students receiving various disciplinary actions, by selected school characteristics: School year 2003–04


School characteristic     Disciplinary actions taken for students involved in the distribution, possession, or use of alcohol or illegal drugs at school
Total students
involved in
recorded offenses
  Removals without
continuing services
  Transfers to
specialized schools1
  Out-of-school
suspensions
lasting 5 or more days
  Other disciplinary action2
Number   Number Percent   Number Percent   Number Percent   Number Percent
All public schools  162,984   10,641 7   39,225 25   66,707 43   38,889 25
                           
Level3                           
Primary  5,318   110 2   1,334 26   2,192 42   1,560 30
Middle  37,022   1,621 5   11,136 31   13,688 39   8,944 25
High school  108,106   7,031 7   24,886 24   45,686 44   25,926 25
Combined  12,539   1,879 17   1,870 16   5,141 45   2,459 22
                           
Enrollment size                           
Less than 300  7,609   420 6   1,695 25   2,457 36   2,189 32
300–499  15,029   2,219 15   2,975 21   5,849 41   3,285 23
500–999  42,767   2,813 7   11,019 27   17,933 44   9,340 23
1,000 or more  97,579   5,189 6   23,536 25   40,469 43   24,074 26
                           
Urbanicity                           
City  51,478   3,968 8   12,438 25   19,606 40   13,260 27
Urban fringe  62,028   3,489 6   14,947 25   27,208 45   14,228 24
Town  18,389   1,235 7   4,338 24   8,446 47   3,901 22
Rural  31,089   1,949 7   7,503 26   11,447 40   7,500 26
                           
Crime level where students live4                           
High  13,890   2,018 15   3,311 25   4,598 35   3,330 25
Moderate  41,828   2,370 6   11,114 28   15,979 40   10,802 27
Low  77,153   3,938 5   17,112 23   34,568 47   17,435 24
Mixed  30,114   2,315 8   7,688 27   11,561 40   7,322 25
                           
Percent minority enrollment5                           
Less than 5 percent  21,619   1,478 7   2,516 13   11,101 56   4,837 24
5 to 20 percent  42,469   2,511 6   7,742 19   19,914 49   10,410 26
20 to 50 percent  38,182   1,994 5   10,641 29   16,932 46   7,146 19
50 percent or more  56,642   4,058 7   16,518 30   17,785 33   15,884 29
                           
Percent of students
eligible for free or
reduced-price lunch 
                         
0–20 percent  49,397   1,860 4   8,822 19   23,577 51   12,040 26
21–50 percent  62,261   4,344 7   15,010 25   27,771 46   12,638 21
More than 50 percent  51,327   4,437 9   15,394 31   15,359 31   14,211 29
                           
Percent of students below 15th
percentile on standardized tests 
                         
0–5 percent  36,082   2,874 8   8,203 24   14,349 42   8,654 25
6–15 percent  67,562   3,197 5   16,022 25   28,643 45   16,110 25
More than 15 percent  59,340   4,570 8   15,000 26   23,715 41   14,124 25
                           
Percent of students likely
to attend college 
                         
0–35 percent  44,126   4,165 10   11,340 27   17,321 41   9,631 23
36–60 percent  45,793   3,070 7   12,506 29   18,444 42   9,794 22
More than 60 percent  73,066   3,407 5   15,380 22   30,942 45   19,464 28
                           
Percent of students who consider
academic achievement important 
                         
0–25 percent  12,507   848 7   3,993 32   5,256 43   2,245 18
26–50 percent  41,016   2,567 7   9,566 25   17,210 44   9,549 25
51–75 percent  48,911   3,833 8   12,345 27   18,287 40   11,749 25
More than 75 percent  60,550   3,393 6   13,321 23   25,954 45   15,346 26
                           
Percent male enrollment                           
0–44 percent  10,412   477 5   2,773 28   3,978 40   2,627 27
45–55 percent  141,531   9,214 7   34,101 25   58,863 44   32,613 24
More than 55 percent  11,042   950 9   2,352 22   3,866 36   3,649 34
                           
Student-to-teacher ratio6                           
Less than 12 students  42,671   2,578 6   9,604 24   17,985 44   10,685 26
12–16 students  68,852   5,188 8   20,275 30   24,818 37   16,259 24
More than 16 students  51,461   2,875 6   9,346 19   23,904 50   11,944 25
                           
Number of classroom changes7                           
0–3 changes  5,472   312 6   1,264 24   1,789 34   1,889 36
4–6 changes  84,754   6,654 8   19,422 24   34,688 43   19,996 25
More than 6 changes  72,759   3,675 5   18,540 27   30,230 44   17,004 24
                           
Regular use of law enforcement8                           
Regular use  135,659   8,900 7   33,222 25   55,259 42   32,913 25
No regular use  27,325   1,742 7   6,004 24   11,448 45   5,976 24
                           
Number of serious
discipline problems9 
                         
No problems  73,993   4,716 7   18,097 26   30,087 43   17,605 25
1 problem  28,877   1,546 6   7,571 27   11,673 42   7,173 26
2 problems  23,997   2,138 10   5,812 26   8,585 38   5,909 26
3 or more problems  36,117   2,241 6   7,745 22   16,362 47   8,202 24
                           
Transfers as a percentage
of enrollment10 
                         
0 to 6 percent  27,545   2,022 8   3,365 13   14,251 55   6,104 24
6 to 11 percent  29,547   2,303 8   6,787 24   11,827 42   7,568 27
11 to 21 percent  52,578   3,054 6   12,169 24   22,072 44   12,733 25
21 percent or more  53,314   3,262 6   16,904 33   18,557 36   12,483 24
                           
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions11 
                         
No disruptions  130,980   8,262 7   30,102 24   55,198 44   30,927 25
Any disruptions  32,005   2,379 8   9,124 29   11,509 37   7,961 26
                           
Percent of students
absent on a daily basis 
                         
0–2 percent  8,825   291 4   1,661 21   2,811 36   3,123 40
3–5 percent  60,803   4,070 7   16,863 29   21,713 38   14,928 26
6–10 percent  79,321   5,222 7   17,831 23   35,825 47   17,723 23
More than 10 percent  14,036   1,058 8   2,870 21   6,357 47   3,115 23
                           
Prevalence of violent incidents12                           
No violent incidents  1,468   91 7   289 22   435 33   504 38
Any violent incidents  161,516   10,550 7   38,936 25   66,271 43   38,384 25
1 Specialized school was defined for respondents as "a school that is specifically for students who were referred for disciplinary reasons. The school may also have students who were referred for other reasons. The school may be at the same location as your school."
2 Other disciplinary actions include suspension less than 5 days, detention, etc.
3 Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
4 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
5 These estimates exclude data from Tennessee because schools in this state did not report estimates of student race.
6 Student-to-teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
7 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
8 Respondents were asked, "During the 2003–2004 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on a regular basis?"
9 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
10 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
11 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
12 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: The numbers of students involved in offenses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about discipline issues at the school. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Reponses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education