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Table 12.  Percentage of public schools reporting that removals or transfers for at least the remainder of the school year or suspensions for less than the remainder of the school year were allowable disciplinary actions, by selected school characteristics: School year 2003–04


School characteristic      Suspension for less than the remainder of the school year 
Removal or transfer for at least the remainder of the school year   Out-of-school suspension   In-school suspension
Removal with no
continuing
school services
Transfer to
specialized
school1
Transfer to
another regular
school
Removal with
tutoring or at-home
instruction
  No curriculum
services
provided
Curriculum
services
provided
  No curriculum
services
provided
Curriculum
services
provided
All public schools  51 67 38 62   68 75   22 75
                     
Level2                     
Primary  42 59 40 57   60 73   25 73
Middle  59 80 38 68   77 79   16 82
High school  70 82 37 74   85 79   14 72
Combined  73 70 27 67   78 73   27 76
                     
Enrollment size                     
Less than 300  57 61 32 63   64 70   28 73
300–499  51 65 37 64   63 78   25 74
500–999  48 67 39 59   70 74   18 77
1,000 or more  55 84 48 61   81 81   13 74
                     
Urbanicity                     
City  47 67 53 53   65 71   20 73
Urban fringe  46 67 39 62   66 77   22 72
Town  58 66 22 66   69 81   23 80
Rural  59 67 30 67   71 73   24 77
                     
Crime level where
students live3 
                   
High  44 66 52 45   72 67   16 69
Moderate  54 69 42 61   71 78   21 75
Low  52 66 34 65   67 75   24 76
Mixed  50 70 43 57   66 73   18 73
                     
Percent minority
enrollment4 
                   
Less than 5 percent  62 69 29 72   74 78   28 81
5 to 20 percent  53 66 31 72   66 77   24 72
20 to 50 percent  51 68 42 60   67 78   20 77
50 percent or more  42 65 46 48   65 68   18 70
                     
Percent of students
eligible for free or
reduced-price lunch 
                   
0–20 percent  49 69 36 67   64 77   23 74
21–50 percent  58 67 35 68   70 79   25 77
More than 50 percent  48 66 42 53   67 69   19 74
                     
Percent of students
below 15th percentile on
standardized tests 
                   
0–5 percent  51 66 36 63   61 75   21 75
6–15 percent  52 67 37 63   69 75   25 77
More than 15 percent  50 67 41 59   73 75   19 71
                     
Percent of students likely
to attend college 
                   
0–35 percent  53 69 39 57   72 70   22 72
36–60 percent  53 66 36 63   68 77   21 77
More than 60 percent  49 66 38 65   64 77   23 76
                     
Percent of students who
consider academic
achievement important 
                   
0–25 percent  53 66 35 56   72 67   25 71
26–50 percent  56 72 41 64   75 75   24 73
51–75 percent  54 66 38 62   70 76   19 78
More than 75 percent  46 65 37 62   61 76   23 74
                     
Percent male enrollment                     
0–44 percent  47 64 32 57   63 68   19 64
45–55 percent  52 67 38 62   68 76   22 76
More than 55 percent  54 68 39 61   65 68   27 71
                     
Student-to-teacher ratio5                     
Less than 12 students  50 65 32 61   67 72   24 76
12–16 students  55 71 40 64   69 75   21 74
More than 16 students  49 63 48 59   67 80   21 74
                     
Number of classroom
changes6 
                   
0–3 changes  39 55 39 51   55 68   26 66
4–6 changes  53 67 37 63   69 76   22 74
More than 6 changes  61 78 37 70   77 78   19 84
                     
Regular use of law
enforcement7 
                   
Regular use  53 72 40 62   73 75   20 76
No regular use  50 63 36 62   63 75   24 74
                     
Number of serious
discipline problems8 
                   
No problems  49 64 35 61   61 74   23 73
1 problem  52 70 40 61   78 75   24 79
2 problems  59 78 46 64   80 75   18 82
3 or more problems  58 72 43 65   83 77   16 73
                     
Transfers as a percentage
of enrollment9 
                   
0 to 6 percent  48 63 36 59   59 72   23 70
6 to 11 percent  52 67 38 64   70 75   26 76
11 to 21 percent  51 70 38 66   69 77   23 76
21 percent or more  54 66 39 58   71 75   18 75
                     
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions10 
                   
No disruptions  51 66 38 61   67 74   22 75
Any disruptions  66 80 42 68   81 82   22 77
                     
Percent of students
absent on a daily basis 
                   
0–2 percent  48 60 35 60   60 67   33 70
3–5 percent  50 67 37 59   66 76   22 77
6–10 percent  54 70 39 68   75 77   19 75
More than 10 percent  54 61 45 56   64 64   21 62
                     
Prevalence of
violent incidents11 
                   
No violent incidents  39 54 34 61   46 69   25 65
Any violent incidents  54 70 39 62   73 76   22 77
1 Specialized school was defined for respondents as "a school that is specifically for students who were referred for disciplinary reasons. The school may also have students who were referred for other reasons. The school may be at the same location as your school."
2 Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
3 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
4 These estimates exclude data from Tennessee because schools in this state did not report estimates of student race.
5 Student-to-teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
6 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
7 Respondents were asked, "During the 2003–2004 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on a regular basis?"
8 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
9 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
10 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
11 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Reponses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education