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Table 10.  Percentage of public schools reporting selected types of disciplinary problems occurring at school daily or at least once a week, or at all, by selected school characteristics: School year 2003–04


School characteristic Happens daily or at least once a week   Happens at all
Student
racial
tensions
Student
bullying
Student sexual
harass-
ment of
other students1
Student
verbal abuse of teachers
Wide-
spread
disorder
in class-
rooms
Student
acts of
disrespect
for teachers
  Undesirable
gang
activities2
Undesirable cult
or extremist
group activities3
All public schools  2 27 4 11 3 19   17 3
                   
Level4                   
Primary  1 24 2 7 2 14   8 1
Middle  5 42 9 18 6 32   31 6
High school  3 21 6 17 4 26   41 13
Combined  2 23 4 14 3 25   11 2
                   
Enrollment size                   
Less than 300  1 23 2 7 3 14   7 2
300–499  1 27 3 8 2 17   10 1
500–999  3 28 4 12 3 21   18 3
1,000 or more  6 30 8 23 7 34   49 13
                   
Urbanicity                   
City  3 31 5 16 4 27   25 4
Urban fringe  2 26 4 8 2 16   17 4
Town  4 30 5 13 3 23   18 4
Rural  # 23 2 8 2 16   9 1
                   
Crime level where
students live5 
                 
High  4 41 10 37 11 49   40 5
Moderate  4 36 7 16 5 29   31 5
Low  1 22 2 5 1 12   9 3
Mixed  3 26 4 14 3 23   20 4
                   
Percent minority
enrollment6 
                 
Less than 5 percent  1 25 3 6 1 14   3 2
5 to 20 percent  2 27 3 6 1 14   10 3
20 to 50 percent  3 28 4 12 3 19   20 6
50 percent or more  2 27 5 17 6 29   30 3
                   
Percent of students
eligible for free or
reduced-price lunch 
                 
0–20 percent  2 23 3 5 1 11   10 4
21–50 percent  2 28 4 7 1 16   13 4
More than 50 percent  2 28 4 17 5 28   24 3
                   
Percent of students
below 15th percentile on
standardized tests 
                 
0–5 percent  1 18 2 4 1 12   9 3
6–15 percent  2 28 4 10 1 18   14 3
More than 15 percent  3 34 6 19 7 30   28 4
                   
Percent of students likely
to attend college 
                 
0–35 percent  4 31 6 18 5 26   23 4
36–60 percent  1 26 2 7 2 19   16 3
More than 60 percent  1 24 3 7 1 15   13 3
                   
Percent of students who
consider academic
achievement important 
                 
0–25 percent  4 39 10 26 9 36   27 6
26–50 percent  3 31 6 17 3 27   21 4
51–75 percent  2 28 2 8 2 19   16 4
More than 75 percent  1 21 2 5 1 11   12 2
                   
Percent male enrollment                   
0–44 percent  1 22 2 12 3 24   16 5
45–55 percent  2 27 4 10 3 19   18 3
More than 55 percent  2 24 3 12 4 19   11 2
                   
Student-to-teacher ratio7                   
Less than 12 students  1 26 3 11 3 20   12 2
12–16 students  3 26 5 12 3 21   20 4
More than 16 students  3 30 4 9 2 16   23 4
                   
Number of classroom
changes8 
                 
0–3 changes  1 22 2 7 2 13   10 1
4–6 changes  2 26 3 11 3 20   17 4
More than 6 changes  3 33 6 14 3 24   22 5
                   
Regular use of law
enforcement9 
                 
Regular use  3 29 5 15 4 25   27 6
No regular use  1 25 2 7 2 15   8 1
                   
Number of serious
discipline problems10 
                 
No problems  # # # # # #   10 2
1 problem  # 69 # 4 # 26   18 4
2 problems  6 69 9 34 6 75   26 5
3 or more problems  19 95 35 85 27 94   53 12
                   
Transfers as a percentage
of enrollment11 
                 
0 to 6 percent  1 23 2 6 1 14   10 2
6 to 11 percent  1 28 2 7 2 16   13 3
11 to 21 percent  3 25 5 10 2 18   18 4
21 percent or more  2 30 6 17 6 27   22 4
                   
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions12 
                 
No disruptions  2 27 4 10 3 19   15 3
Any disruptions  5 28 6 23 5 29   48 10
                   
Percent of students
absent on a daily basis 
                 
0–2 percent  1 22 2 7 3 9   12 2
3–5 percent  1 25 3 6 1 15   12 2
6–10 percent  4 32 6 18 5 29   24 6
More than 10 percent  3 26 3 22 5 28   30 5
                   
Prevalence of violent incidents13                   
No violent incidents  # 12 # 2 # 5   2 1
Any violent incidents  3 30 5 13 3 23   20 4
# Rounds to zero.
1 Sexual harassment was defined for respondents as "unsolicited, offensive behavior that inappropriately asserts sexuality over another person. This behavior may be verbal or nonverbal."
2 Gang was defined for respondents as "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior."
3 Cult or extremist group was defined for respondents as "a group that espouses radical beliefs and practices, which may include a religious component, that are widely seen as threatening the basic values and cultural norms of society at large."
4 Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
5 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
6 These estimates exclude data from Tennessee because schools in this state did not report estimates of student race.
7 Student-to-teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
8 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
9 Respondents were asked, "During the 2003–2004 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on a regular basis?"
10 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
11 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
12 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
13 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: "At school" was defined for respondents to include activities that happen in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities. Reponses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education