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Table 8.  Number and percentage of public schools reporting incidents of hate crime and gang-related crime at school, the number of incidents reported, and the rate of incidents per 1,000 students, by selected school characteristics: School year 2003–04


School characteristic  Hate crime1   Gang-related crime2
Number
of
schools
Percent
of
schools
Number
of
incidents
Rate per
1,000
students
  Number
of
schools
Percent
of
schools
Number
of
incidents
Rate per
1,000
students
All public schools  1,998 2 6,383 0.1   3,669 5 23,039 0.5
                   
Level3                   
Primary  461 1 2,124 0.1   792 2 2,895 0.1
Middle  564 4 1,220 0.1   1,200 8 10,116 1.0
High school  790 7 2,746 0.2   1,481 14 9,636 0.8
Combined  183 3 292 0.1   196 3 393 0.1
                   
Enrollment size                   
Less than 300  108 1 131 #   51 # 178 #
300–499  260 1 400 #   664 3 2,392 0.2
500–999  829 3 1,965 0.1   1,197 4 6,208 0.3
1,000 or more  802 9 3,887 0.3   1,758 20 14,261 1.1
                   
Urbanicity                   
City  689 3 3,552 0.3   1,938 10 16,340 1.2
Urban fringe  704 3 1,450 0.1   1,153 4 4,928 0.3
Town  201 2 448 0.1   192 2 772 0.2
Rural  404 2 933 0.1   386 2 999 0.1
                   
Crime level where
students live4 
                 
High  222 4 1,712 0.5   725 12 9,605 2.7
Moderate  653 4 1,314 0.1   1,413 9 7,379 0.7
Low  856 2 1,833 0.1   861 2 2,621 0.1
Mixed  267 3 1,523 0.2   670 6 3,435 0.5
                   
Percent minority
enrollment5 
                 
Less than 5 percent  360 2 592 0.1   86 1 195 #
5 to 20 percent  559 3 1,243 0.1   246 1 700 0.1
20 to 50 percent  369 2 920 0.1   759 4 3,067 0.3
50 percent or more  683 3 3,601 0.2   2,546 10 18,995 1.2
                   
Percent of students
eligible for free or
reduced-price lunch 
                 
0–20 percent  556 3 929 0.1   435 2 1,846 0.1
21–50 percent  661 2 1,506 0.1   835 3 3,884 0.2
More than 50 percent  781 2 3,947 0.2   2,399 7 17,309 1.0
                   
Percent of students
below 15th percentile on
standardized tests 
                 
0–5 percent  335 1 701 0.1   590 3 2,201 0.2
6–15 percent  929 3 2,848 0.1   1,209 4 6,240 0.3
More than 15 percent  735 3 2,834 0.2   1,870 8 14,599 1.0
                   
Percent of students likely
to attend college 
                 
0–35 percent  609 2 1,413 0.1   1,765 7 12,529 0.9
36–60 percent  498 2 1,085 0.1   848 4 5,802 0.4
More than 60 percent  891 3 3,884 0.2   1,057 3 4,708 0.2
                   
Percent of students who
consider academic
achievement important 
                 
0–25 percent  289 4 528 0.1   613 7 4,107 1.0
26–50 percent  388 2 2,172 0.2   957 5 7,123 0.8
51–75 percent  684 3 1,410 0.1   987 4 6,391 0.5
More than 75 percent  637 2 2,273 0.1   1,112 4 5,419 0.3
                   
Percent male enrollment                   
0–44 percent  183 3 486 0.2   399 7 2,040 0.8
45–55 percent  1,716 3 5,637 0.1   2,969 4 18,695 0.5
More than 55 percent  99 1 260 0.1   302 3 2,304 0.6
                   
Student-to-teacher ratio6                   
Less than 12 students  438 1 874 0.1   1,139 3 5,678 0.4
12–16 students  978 3 4,266 0.2   1,563 5 10,942 0.6
More than 16 students  582 4 1,243 0.1   967 7 6,419 0.5
                   
Number of classroom
changes7 
                 
0–3 changes  133 1 1,357 0.1   420 2 1,019 0.1
4–6 changes  1,105 3 2,295 0.1   1,712 5 13,950 0.6
More than 6 changes  760 3 2,731 0.2   1,538 7 8,070 0.6
                   
Regular use of law
enforcement8 
                 
Regular use  1,428 4 4,180 0.2   3,163 9 21,817 0.8
No regular use  570 1 2,203 0.1   507 1 1,223 0.1
                   
Number of serious
discipline problems9 
                 
No problems  658 1 1,524 0.1   1,627 3 4,772 0.2
1 problem  320 2 1,779 0.2   612 4 4,431 0.5
2 problems  389 5 637 0.1   488 6 3,161 0.6
3 or more problems  631 10 2,443 0.5   943 14 10,675 2.1
                   
Transfers as a percentage
of enrollment10 
                 
0 to 6 percent  328 2 1,826 0.2   386 2 2,196 0.2
6 to 11 percent  458 3 895 0.1   650 4 5,752 0.6
11 to 21 percent  575 2 1,121 0.1   976 4 3,613 0.2
21 percent or more  636 3 2,540 0.2   1,657 7 11,479 0.8
                   
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions11 
                 
No disruptions  1,745 2 5,915 0.1   2,756 4 17,141 0.4
Any disruptions  253 5 467 0.1   914 18 5,899 1.3
                   
Percent of students
absent on a daily basis 
                 
0–2 percent  121 2 247 0.1   78 1 788 0.2
3–5 percent  806 2 1,464 0.1   1,673 4 8,177 0.3
6–10 percent  774 3 3,885 0.2   1,458 6 10,424 0.7
More than 10 percent  297 7 787 0.3   460 11 3,650 1.2
# Rounds to zero.
1 A hate crime was defined for respondents as "a criminal offense or threat against a person, property, or society that is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender's bias against a race, color, national origin, ethnicity, gender, religion, disability, or sexual orientation."
2 Gang was defined for respondents as "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior.
3 Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools."
4 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
5 These estimates exclude data from Tennessee because schools in this state did not report estimates of student race.
6 Student-to-teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
7 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
8 Respondents were asked, "During the 2003–2004 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on a regular basis?"
9 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
10 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
11 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Reponses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education