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Table 22.  Percentage of public schools reporting use of selected violence prevention program components, by selected school characteristics: 1999–2000


School characteristic Prevention curriculum, instruction, or training for students1 Behavioral
or behavior modification intervention for students
Counseling, social work, psychological, or therapeutic activity for students or adults Individual attention/ mentoring/ tutoring/
coaching of students by students or adults
Recreational, enrichment, or leisure activities for students Students' involvement in resolving student conduct problems2 Programs to promote
sense of community/
social integration among students
Hotline/
tipline for students to report problems
All public schools 65 66 66 63 53 45 57 22
                 
Level                
Elementary 68 68 67 64 52 43 59 16
Middle 70 70 74 70 64 54 61 31
Secondary 54 58 61 58 52 47 52 37
Combined 46 47 45 46 38 32 40 19
                 
Enrollment size                
Less than 300 59 59 57 55 45 33 54 19
300–499 65 65 65 61 54 44 55 16
500–999 68 69 70 68 56 49 58 23
1,000 or more 68 72 73 73 61 59 65 42
                 
Urbanicity                
City 76 77 77 75 65 56 69 28
Urban fringe 66 71 69 68 57 49 58 22
Town 68 64 64 61 50 40 55 23
Rural 54 53 55 51 42 34 47 17
                 
Crime level where students live3                
High 84 82 86 84 75 62 71 22
Moderate 75 79 76 74 60 53 66 28
Low 61 61 61 59 48 40 52 20
Mixed 61 65 67 63 59 49 59 24
                 
Percent minority enrollment3                
0–5 percent 61 59 61 56 47 38 53 20
6–20 percent 59 62 62 59 49 44 54 24
21–50 percent 66 68 65 66 56 45 57 22
More than 50 percent 72 75 74 73 62 54 63 21
                 
Percent of students eligible for free/reduced-price lunch                
0–20 percent 61 62 63 62 50 44 55 20
21–50 percent 61 61 62 57 50 42 53 24
More than 50 percent 72 73 72 70 59 48 62 21
                 
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests                
0–5 percent 64 64 65 62 49 46 56 22
6–15 percent 61 63 63 61 51 40 52 22
More than 15 percent 70 72 71 69 61 51 64 22
                 
Percent of students likely to attend college                
0–35 percent 69 68 70 67 57 46 60 25
36–60 percent 64 65 64 62 51 44 57 22
More than 60 percent 62 65 65 63 52 44 54 20
                 
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important                
0–25 percent 63 65 66 64 57 42 50 26
26–50 percent 60 60 60 57 52 41 54 19
51–75 percent 67 68 68 66 52 46 59 25
More than 75 percent 66 67 67 65 54 46 59 20
                 
Percent male enrollment                
0–44 percent 66 69 68 66 53 53 64 27
45–55 percent 64 64 65 62 52 43 55 22
More than 55 percent 69 72 68 68 61 48 60 19
                 
Student/teacher ratio3,4                
Less than 12 59 60 61 58 48 41 51 18
12–16 66 67 67 64 56 48 58 26
More than 16 69 70 69 68 57 46 60 22
                 
Number of classroom changes3                
0–3 changes 69 70 67 63 51 45 58 16
4–6 changes 66 66 67 65 56 46 59 23
More than 6 changes 62 64 66 63 53 45 56 25
                 
Use of paid law enforcement5                
Regular use 67 70 70 69 59 53 60 28
No regular use 63 62 62 58 48 36 54 15
                 
Number of serious discipline problems6                
No problems 62 62 62 59 50 39 56 18
1 problem 68 70 69 68 54 48 54 24
2 problems 67 69 69 67 57 50 61 27
3 or more problems 71 75 75 70 61 58 61 30
                 
Transfers as percentage of enrollment3,7                
0 to 6 percent 58 58 58 55 50 41 53 23
6 to 11 percent 64 63 63 62 49 46 55 18
11 to 21 percent 64 68 69 66 56 46 57 22
21 percent or more 70 72 71 68 56 46 60 23
                 
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions3,8                
No disruptions 65 66 66 63 53 45 56 20
Any disruptions 67 69 67 68 58 54 63 33
                 
Percent of students absent without excuses                
None 60 59 60 56 45 37 51 13
1–2 percent 63 65 64 62 52 45 56 23
3–5 percent 67 70 71 68 56 47 60 25
6–10 percent 70 67 70 70 61 51 61 27
More than 10 percent 69 72 73 68 61 50 62 23
                 
Prevalence of violent incidents3,9                
No violent incidents 59 59 59 55 46 40 53 14
Any violent incidents 67 69 69 67 56 47 59 25
1 For example, social skills training.
2 For example, conflict resolution or peer mediation, student court.
3 Some schools are omitted from these categories because of missing data on their school characteristics. For this reason, the detailed results do not sum to the totals. See appendix J of 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Detailed Data Documentation (NCES 2004-307) for further information.
4 Student/teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time equivalent teachers. The total number of full-time equivalent teachers is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers, including special education teachers, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
5 Schools were included as regularly using paid law enforcement if they reported the use of paid law enforcement during any of the following times: at any time during school hours, while students were arriving or leaving, at selected school activities (e.g., athletic and social events, open houses, science fairs), or at any other time that the respondent specified.
6 Serious discipline problems is a count of discipline problems reported by principals. These discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, and student acts of disrespect for teachers. If a principal reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems. Undesirable gang activities and undesirable cult or extremist group activities were also counted once as a problem if the principal reported that these events occurred at all in their school.
7 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school, divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
8 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as bomb threats or anthrax threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
9 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. "At school/at your school" was defined for respondents as including activities happening in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that are holding school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to, unless the survey specified otherwise, only respond for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities/events were in session. A gang was defined for respondents as, "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior." Elementary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. Secondary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education