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Table 21.  Percentage of public schools reporting use of selected policies to prevent or reduce violence, by selected school characteristics: 1999–2000


School characteristic Training, supervision, or technical assistance in classroom management for teachers Review, revision, or monitoring of schoolwide discipline practices and procedures Training faculty or staff in crime prevention Reorganizing school, grades, or schedules1 Architectural environmental modifications Regularly used paid law enforcement2
All public schools 66 90 31 25 31 52
             
Level            
Elementary 67 89 31 20 29 37
Middle 68 92 33 44 32 68
Secondary 65 90 35 23 35 89
Combined 56 86 23 17 28 60
             
Enrollment size            
Less than 300 56 84 27 14 27 30
300–499 66 89 28 19 28 46
500–999 71 92 34 34 33 60
1,000 or more 73 95 42 34 38 88
             
Urbanicity            
City 76 93 43 35 33 64
Urban fringe 66 89 31 26 33 53
Town 68 92 30 25 31 49
Rural 59 86 24 17 27 42
             
Crime level where students live3            
High 83 96 46 43 32 69
Moderate 77 90 43 29 33 58
Low 62 88 26 21 29 46
Mixed 62 93 34 33 35 62
             
Percent minority enrollment3            
0–5 percent 62 88 26 17 29 41
6–20 percent 59 85 24 22 29 49
21–50 percent 69 92 36 27 33 51
More than 50 percent 76 94 41 34 32 66
             
Percent of students eligible for free/reduced-price lunch            
0–20 percent 62 90 22 20 29 50
21–50 percent 64 88 30 22 31 48
More than 50 percent 72 90 40 31 32 56
             
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests            
0–5 percent 67 90 30 24 31 47
6–15 percent 62 88 29 20 30 51
More than 15 percent 71 92 35 32 32 57
             
Percent of students likely to attend college            
0–35 percent 69 89 32 32 32 55
36–60 percent 64 90 31 22 29 49
More than 60 percent 67 90 31 22 31 52
             
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important            
0–25 percent 67 87 29 32 36 62
26–50 percent 64 90 28 22 28 49
51–75 percent 67 90 33 27 31 58
More than 75 percent 67 90 33 23 31 46
             
Percent male enrollment            
0–44 percent 75 89 34 31 31 53
45–55 percent 65 89 29 23 31 52
More than 55 percent 65 91 41 32 31 47
             
Student/teacher ratio3,4            
Less than 12 62 87 29 21 31 47
12–16 69 91 36 25 32 56
More than 16 68 92 29 27 30 54
             
Number of classroom changes3            
0–3 changes 68 89 36 24 28 38
4–6 changes 68 90 30 25 32 51
More than 6 changes 64 90 30 28 32 65
             
Use of paid law enforcement2            
Regular use 71 93 36 32 36 100
No regular use 62 86 26 18 25
             
Number of serious discipline problems5            
No problems 63 88 29 19 28 41
1 problem 70 92 32 28 34 64
2 problems 64 92 37 33 34 62
3 or more problems 74 93 35 40 36 73
             
Transfers as percentage of enrollment3,6            
0 to 6 percent 60 88 27 21 24 51
6 to 11 percent 71 88 35 24 31 52
11 to 21 percent 69 90 32 24 34 49
21 percent or more 66 91 33 29 33 52
             
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions3,7            
No disruptions 66 89 31 24 31 49
Any disruptions 65 93 34 30 32 77
             
Percent of students absent without excuses            
None 59 85 23 18 25 39
1–2 percent 65 89 29 24 31 47
3–5 percent 73 91 36 28 34 56
6–10 percent 66 93 38 27 32 74
More than 10 percent 74 94 49 37 28 69
             
Prevalence of violent incidents3,8            
No violent incidents 64 85 34 19 26 35
Any violent incidents 67 91 30 28 33 58
† Not applicable.
1 For example, schools within a school, "houses" or "teams" of students.
2 Schools were included as regularly using paid law enforcement if they reported the use of paid law enforcement during any of the following times: at any time during school hours, while students were arriving or leaving, at selected school activities (e.g., athletic and social events, open houses, science fairs), or at any other time that the respondent specified.
3 Some schools are omitted from these categories because of missing data on their school characteristics. For this reason, the detailed results do not sum to the totals. See appendix J of 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Detailed Data Documentation (NCES 2004-307) for further information.
4 Student/teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time equivalent teachers. The total number of full-time equivalent teachers is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers, including special education teachers, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
5 Serious discipline problems is a count of discipline problems reported by principals. These discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, and student acts of disrespect for teachers. If a principal reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems. Undesirable gang activities and undesirable cult or extremist group activities were also counted once as a problem if the principal reported that these events occurred at all in their school.
6 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school, divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
7 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as bomb threats or anthrax threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
8 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. "At school/at your school" was defined for respondents as including activities happening in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that are holding school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to, unless the survey specified otherwise, only respond for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities/events were in session. A gang was defined for respondents as, "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior." Elementary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. Secondary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education