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Table 20.  Number and percentage distribution of serious disciplinary actions taken by public schools, by selected school characteristics: 1999–2000


School characteristic Removals with
no services
  Transfers to specialized schools1   Out-of-school suspensions   Total removals and transfers
Number Percent   Number Percent   Number Percent   Number Percent
All public schools 127,176 11   75,955 7   959,506 83   203,130 17
                       
Level                      
Elementary 41,445 16   6,020 2   212,562 82   47,465 18
Middle 32,146 8   26,804 7   323,122 85   58,950 15
Secondary 48,259 11   40,063 9   370,566 81   88,323 19
Combined 5,325 9   3,067 5   53,256 86   8,392 14
                       
Enrollment size                      
Less than 300 4,968 8   3,113 5   56,357 87   8,081 13
300–499 15,206 12   7,852 6   106,852 82   23,058 18
500–999 67,902 12   25,850 5   464,756 83   93,751 17
1,000 or more 39,100 10   39,140 10   331,540 81   78,240 19
                       
Urbanicity                      
City 61,115 15   31,452 8   323,148 78   92,567 22
Urban fringe 32,880 8   25,965 7   328,848 85   58,845 15
Town 18,947 12   6,584 4   126,882 83   25,530 17
Rural 14,234 7   11,954 6   180,627 87   26,188 13
                       
Crime level where students live2                      
High 5,418 3   9,989 5   166,687 92   15,407 8
Moderate 33,724 12   19,472 7   238,953 82   53,196 18
Low 53,941 12   32,436 7   380,344 81   86,378 19
Mixed 32,370 15   13,740 6   170,492 79   46,109 21
                       
Percent minority enrollment2                      
0–5 percent 17,520 9   8,169 4   180,182 88   25,689 12
6–20 percent 31,367 12   13,144 5   217,277 83   44,511 17
21–50 percent 36,684 14   18,556 7   204,358 79   55,240 21
More than 50 percent 39,551 9   35,780 8   351,191 82   75,331 18
                       
Percent of students eligible for free/reduced-price lunch                      
0–20 percent 26,297 10   17,903 7   224,048 84   44,200 16
21–50 percent 73,221 16   27,149 6   349,643 78   100,370 22
More than 50 percent 27,658 6   30,902 7   385,815 87   58,560 13
                       
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests                      
0–5 percent 25,624 13   15,004 8   155,893 79   40,628 21
6–15 percent 66,638 13   29,318 6   413,455 81   95,956 19
More than 15 percent 34,914 8   31,633 7   390,158 85   66,546 15
                       
Percent of students likely to attend college                      
0–35 percent 32,205 8   28,341 7   342,803 85   60,547 15
36–60 percent 67,177 16   23,209 5   340,199 79   90,386 21
More than 60 percent 27,794 8   24,404 7   276,504 84   52,198 16
                       
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important                      
0–25 percent 8,622 8   9,306 9   89,202 83   17,929 17
26–50 percent 34,036 10   19,042 6   291,003 85   53,078 15
51–75 percent 50,244 12   24,055 6   350,925 83   74,299 17
More than 75 percent 34,273 12   23,551 8   228,375 80   57,825 20
                       
Percent male enrollment                      
0–44 percent 14,306 12   9,958 8   96,454 80   24,264 20
45–55 percent 106,764 11   56,893 6   774,203 83   163,657 17
More than 55 percent 6,106 6   9,103 9   88,848 85   15,209 15
                       
Student/teacher ratio2,3                      
Less than 12 18,115 9   14,075 7   172,870 84   32,190 16
12–16 45,449 9   29,022 6   426,447 85   74,471 15
More than 16 59,088 16   27,793 7   294,090 77   86,881 23
                       
Number of classroom changes2                      
0–3 changes 18,802 17   4,464 4   86,940 79   23,267 21
4–6 changes 44,034 8   42,661 8   451,226 84   86,695 16
More than 6 changes 57,928 14   24,482 6   340,860 81   82,410 19
                       
Use of paid law enforcement4                      
Regular use 84,177 9   69,528 7   787,533 84   153,705 16
No regular use 42,998 19   6,427 3   171,972 78   49,425 22
                       
Number of serious discipline problems5                      
No problems 38,757 15   12,935 5   211,185 80   51,691 20
1 problem 35,675 16   16,942 7   176,820 77   52,617 23
2 problems 24,775 10   18,036 7   207,148 83   42,811 17
3 or more problems 27,969 7   28,042 7   364,353 87   56,011 13
                       
Transfers as percentage of enrollment2,6                      
0 to 6 percent 22,471 10   15,211 7   179,197 83   37,682 17
6 to 11 percent 10,893 6   10,715 6   150,294 87   21,608 13
11 to 21 percent 31,569 13   17,165 7   195,146 80   48,734 20
21 percent or more 60,042 13   27,135 6   388,563 82   87,178 18
                       
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions2,7                      
No disruptions 77,508 10   48,192 6   654,401 84   125,700 16
Any disruptions 23,341 8   21,964 7   251,161 85   45,305 15
                       
Percent of students absent without excuses                      
None 11,025 15   5,357 7   57,397 78   16,382 22
1–2 percent 24,396 9   18,102 7   227,753 84   42,497 16
3–5 percent 55,711 13   21,869 5   346,829 82   77,580 18
6–10 percent 26,804 10   19,149 7   225,846 83   45,952 17
More than 10 percent 9,240 8   11,479 9   101,681 83   20,719 17
                       
Prevalence of violent incidents2,8                      
No violent incidents 2,959 6   3,643 7   44,456 87   6,602 13
Any violent incidents 121,543 11   71,972 7   906,142 82   193,516 18
1 Specialized school was defined for respondents as, "a school that is specifically for students who were referred for disciplinary reasons. The school may also have students who were referred for other reasons. The school may be at the same location as your school."
2 Some schools are omitted from these categories because of missing data on their school characteristics. For this reason, the detailed results do not sum to the totals. See appendix J of 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Detailed Data Documentation (NCES 2004-307) for further information.
3 Student/teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time equivalent teachers. The total number of full-time equivalent teachers is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers, including special education teachers, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
4 Schools were included as regularly using paid law enforcement if they reported the use of paid law enforcement during any of the following times: at any time during school hours, while students were arriving or leaving, at selected school activities (e.g., athletic and social events, open houses, science fairs), or at any other time that the respondent specified.
5 Serious discipline problems is a count of discipline problems reported by principals. These discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, and student acts of disrespect for teachers. If a principal reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems. Undesirable gang activities and undesirable cult or extremist group activities were also counted once as a problem if the principal reported that these events occurred at all in their school.
6 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school, divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
7 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as bomb threats or anthrax threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
8 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. "At school/at your school" was defined for respondents as including activities happening in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that are holding school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to, unless the survey specified otherwise, only respond for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities/events were in session. A gang was defined for respondents as, "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior." Elementary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. Secondary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education