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Table 9.  Number and percentage of public schools reporting violent and other incidents of gang-related crimes with the number of incidents reported, by selected school vcharacteristics: 1999–2000


School characteristic Violent incidents1   Serious violent incidents2   Theft3   Other incidents4
Num-
ber of schools
Per-
cent of schools
Num-
ber of incidents
  Num-
ber of schools
Per-
cent of schools
Num-
ber of incidents
  Num-
ber of schools
Per-
cent of schools
Num-
ber of incidents
  Num-
ber of schools
Per-
cent of schools
Num-
ber of incidents
All public schools 3,264 4 24,326   802 1 2,919   408 # 1,155   4,392 5 20,387
                               
Level                              
Elementary 712 1 4,659     210 # 408   2,233 4 5,860
Middle 1,228 8 7,170   187 1 824     1,010 7 6,784
Secondary 1,262 11 12,402   420 4 1,400   148 1 611   1,011 9 7,493
Combined   # # #     138 3 250
                               
Enrollment size                              
Less than 300 220 1 499   # # #     478 2 1,231
300–499 263 1 727     # # #   528 2 1,632
500–999 1,411 5 9,065   329 1 857   256 1 487   2,285 8 8,422
1,000 or more 1,370 16 14,035   451 5 2,040   89 1 605   1,102 13 9,102
                               
Urbanicity                              
City 1,945 10 17,296   557 3 1,949   329 2 1,023   2,176 11 11,894
Urban fringe 802 3 5,154   187 1 898   42 # 94   1,433 5 5,924
Town 239 2 1,226       309 3 1,142
Rural 278 1 650       475 2 1,427
                               
Crime level where students live5                              
High 787 14 7,815   320 6 1,046   194 3 312   846 15 4,025
Moderate 794 6 5,682   151 1 491     1,432 10 5,955
Low 991 2 5,711   172 # 260   162 # 259   1,431 3 4,421
Mixed 610 8 4,539   146 2 1,074     633 8 5,734
                               
Percent minority enrollment5                              
0–5 percent 97 # 204       268 1 679
6–20 percent 325 2 975     87 # 104   410 2 1,550
21–50 percent 676 4 4,755   159 1 885   38 # 90   1,074 7 5,429
More than 50 percent 2,109 10 18,041   585 3 1,888   267 1 944   2,621 12 12,616
                               
Percent of students eligible for free/reduced-price lunch                              
0–20 percent 510 2 3,297   128 1 381   37 # 37   577 3 2,657
21–50 percent 840 3 5,606   172 1 1,121   135 # 651   1,123 4 5,889
More than 50 percent 1,914 6 15,423   502 2 1,416   237 1 467   2,692 9 11,841
                               
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests                              
0–5 percent 591 2 1,973   32 # 41   102 # 119   577 2 2,671
6–15 percent 967 3 6,287   252 1 548   38 # 71   1,233 4 4,464
More than 15 percent 1,706 7 16,066   518 2 2,330   268 1 965   2,582 11 13,252
                               
Percent of students likely to attend college                              
0–35 percent 1,538 6 10,477   373 2 1,188   212 1 363   2,171 9 9,611
36–60 percent 977 3 9,100   240 1 1,287   57 # 573   1,439 5 6,463
More than 60 percent 749 3 4,748   188 1 443   140 1 219   782 3 4,312
                               
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important                              
0–25 percent 530 8 3,907   146 2 576   93 1 126   658 10 2,155
26–50 percent 1,008 6 6,684   323 2 1,253   238 1 488   1,340 8 6,983
51–75 percent 984 4 9,319   172 1 758   41 # 504   1,195 5 7,366
More than 75 percent 742 2 4,416   161 1 331   37 # 37   1,199 4 3,883
                               
Percent male enrollment                              
0–44 percent 276 3 2,202       446 4 3,298
45–55 percent 2,694 4 19,623   625 1 2,086   256 # 798   3,421 5 15,677
More than 55 percent 294 3 2,500   147 1 293     525 5 1,411
                               
Student/teacher ratio5,6                              
Less than 12 520 2 3,220   134 # 158     613 2 3,467
12–16 1,169 4 8,027   128 # 781   141 1 211   1,636 6 7,234
More than 16 1,357 6 11,987   514 2 1,905   178 1 775   1,954 8 9,282
                               
Number of classroom changes5                              
0–3 changes 426 2 4,417   207 1 719     1,332 6 3,319
4–6 changes 1,592 4 9,473   271 1 930   209 1 705   2,033 6 11,608
More than 6 changes 1,114 6 9,569   289 1 1,198   72 # 204   921 5 5,220
                               
Use of paid law enforcement7                              
Regular use 2,985 7 23,362   779 2 2,896   343 1 1,090   3,170 7 17,311
No regular use 278 1 964       1,222 3 3,076
                               
Number of serious discipline problems8                              
No problems 182 # 332       568 1 1,543
1 problem 1,013 6 6,709   173 1 689     1,200 8 4,710
2 problems 736 8 4,260   246 3 601   204 2 322   727 8 2,214
3 or more problems 1,333 12 13,025   371 3 1,604   156 1 305   1,897 17 11,920
                               
Transfers as percentage of enrollment5,9                              
0 to 6 percent 555 3 3,170   97 # 179   45 # 62   601 3 3,073
6 to 11 percent 531 3 4,378   86 # 374   49 # 494   830 5 4,410
11 to 21 percent 708 4 4,352   234 1 433   208 1 406   908 5 2,880
21 percent or more 1,317 6 10,988   336 1 1,751   107 # 192   1,732 8 8,215
                               
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions5,10                              
No disruptions 2,176 3 14,415   445 1 1,226   252 # 450   3,330 5 14,425
Any disruptions 862 11 8,662   302 4 1,550   144 2 693   788 10 3,972
                               
Percent of students absent without excuses                              
None 103 1 901   # # #     258 2 491
1–2 percent 1,001 3 4,241   299 1 515   157 # 308   1,777 5 6,062
3–5 percent 991 5 6,910   198 1 720   177 1 194   1,158 5 6,416
6–10 percent 669 8 6,306   156 2 695     473 6 2,941
More than 10 percent 499 13 5,967   149 4 989     727 19 4,478
# Rounds to zero.
‡ Reporting standards not met.
1 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
2 Serious violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with a weapon, threat of physical attack with a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
3 Theft/larceny (taking things over $10 without personal confrontation) was defined for respondents as, "the unlawful taking of another person's property without personal confrontation, threat, violence, or bodily harm. Included are pocket picking, stealing purse or backpack (if left unattended or no force was used to take it from owner), theft from a building, theft from a motor vehicle or motor vehicle parts or accessories, theft of bicycles, theft from vending machines, and all other types of thefts."
4 Other incidents include possession of a firearm or explosive device, possession of a knife or sharp object, distribution of illegal drugs, possession or use of alcohol or illegal drugs, sexual harassment, or vandalism.
5 Some schools are omitted from these categories because of missing data on their school characteristics. For this reason, the detailed results do not sum to the totals. See appendix J of 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Detailed Data Documentation (NCES 2004-307) for further information.
6 Student/teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time equivalent teachers. The total number of full-time equivalent teachers is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers, including special education teachers, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
7 Schools were included as regularly using paid law enforcement if they reported the use of paid law enforcement during any of the following times: at any time during school hours, while students were arriving or leaving, at selected school activities (e.g., athletic and social events, open houses, science fairs), or at any other time that the respondent specified.
8 Serious discipline problems is a count of discipline problems reported by principals. These discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, and student acts of disrespect for teachers. If a principal reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems. Undesirable gang activities and undesirable cult or extremist group activities were also counted once as a problem if the principal reported that these events occurred at all in their school.
9 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school, divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
10 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as bomb threats or anthrax threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. "At school/at your school" was defined for respondents as including activities happening in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that are holding school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to, unless the survey specified otherwise, only respond for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities/events were in session. A gang was defined for respondents as, "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior." Elementary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. Secondary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education