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Table 7.    Percentage distribution of public school districts, by specific agreements with teachers' associations or unions and state: 2007–08

Percentage distribution of districts that had a specific agreement with a teachers' association or union
State Collective bargaining1   Meet-and-confer2   No specific agreement3  
United States  53.5   10.9   35.6  
             
Alabama  #   43.5   56.5  
Alaska  80.9   13.1   6.0  
Arizona  0.4   14.4   85.2  
Arkansas  1.5   9.7   88.7  
California  82.3   5.2   12.6 !
             
Colorado  28.7   20.4 ! 51.0  
Connecticut  91.5   5.7 ! 2.8 !
Delaware  61.0   #   39.0  
District of Columbia  10.3 ! #   89.7  
Florida  90.2   7.4   2.5  
             
Georgia  #   1.2 ! 98.8  
Hawaii  100.0   #   #  
Idaho  70.2   15.8   14.0  
Illinois  88.7   6.0 ! 5.3 !
Indiana  80.1   15.1   4.8 !
             
Iowa  95.6   4.4   #  
Kansas  58.0   32.9   9.1  
Kentucky  6.4   8.6   85.0  
Louisiana  10.5   6.8   82.6  
Maine  93.0   7.0   #  
             
Maryland  91.6   4.4   4.0  
Massachusetts  83.1   5.2 ! 11.7 !
Michigan  66.4   4.2   29.4  
Minnesota  45.7   34.9   19.4  
Mississippi  1.3 ! #   98.7  
             
Missouri  0.9   35.3   63.9  
Montana  60.7   8.4   30.9  
Nebraska  80.3   13.2   6.5  
Nevada  100.0   #   #  
New Hampshire  94.4   #   5.6  
             
New Jersey  80.8   13.6 ! 5.6 !
New Mexico  31.2   7.5   61.4  
New York  81.0   9.1 ! 9.8 !
North Carolina  0.4 ! 6.0 ! 93.6  
North Dakota  56.5   18.4   25.1  
             
Ohio  75.5   2.6 ! 21.9  
Oklahoma  22.7   11.2   66.1  
Oregon  92.1   6.0 ! 1.9 !
Pennsylvania  75.3   9.0   15.7  
Rhode Island  69.6   10.4   20.0  
             
South Carolina  0.8   0.8   98.4  
South Dakota  59.4   25.9   14.7  
Tennessee  66.3   15.8   17.9  
Texas  #   2.2 ! 97.8  
Utah  24.0   36.5 ! 39.4  
             
Vermont  87.3   12.7 ! #  
Virginia  #   20.6   79.4  
Washington  67.7   12.5 ! 19.8 !
West Virginia  #   11.6   88.4  
Wisconsin  88.6   11.0   0.5 !
Wyoming  1.8   42.1   56.1  
# Rounds to zero.
! Interpret data with caution. The standard error for this estimate is equal to 30 percent or more of the estimate's value.
1Collective bargaining agreements are legally-binding agreements.
2Meet-and-confer discussions are for the purpose of reaching non-legally-binding agreements.
3This category includes both no agreements and other agreements that do not meet the precise legal definitions of collective bargaining and meet-and-confer agreements.
NOTE: The 2007–08 SASS sampled all districts in Florida, Hawaii, and Maryland. As a result of sampling, variance estimates for these states are always equal to zero and noted with a dagger (†). Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), "Public School District Data File," 2007–08.