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Table A.1.a.-8 Percentage distribution of children in rural areas at about 4 years of age, by type of child care arrangement and selected child and family characteristics: 2005-06
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected child and family characteristics Children at about 4 years of age in 2005-06
Percentage distribution of children7 Percentage distribution by primary type of care arrangement2
No regular nonparental care Home-based care Center-based care5 Multiple arrange- ments6
Relative care3 Nonrelative care4 Total Head Start Other than Head Start
Total 100.0   (†) 23.7   (1.58) 15.4   (1.56) 8.2   (1.02) 51.4   (1.61) 15.1   (1.78) 36.3   (1.79) 1.3   (0.26)
Sex of child                                                
Male 50.1   (2.23) 23.9   (1.82) 12.9   (1.59) 10.0   (1.78) 52.3   (1.92) 15.4   (2.16) 36.9   (2.61)   (†)
Female 49.9   (2.23) 23.5   (2.47) 17.9   (2.32) 6.4   (1.07) 50.5   (2.32) 14.8   (1.99) 35.7   (2.00) 1.7   (0.19)
                                               
Race/ethnicity of child                                                
White 79.5   (1.89) 24.6   (1.86) 14.3   (1.62) 9.4   (1.11) 50.3   (1.61) 12.5   (1.63) 37.8   (2.07) 1.3   (0.33)
Black 8.1   (1.18) 19.9   (4.19) 13.5   (3.16) 2.8 ! (1.58) 61.8   (4.96) 30.5   (7.33) 31.3   (4.86)   (†)
Hispanic 6.0   (1.15) 18.7 ! (6.74) 25.8 ! (7.77) 4.7 ! (3.32) 50.7   (10.02) 15.0 ! (5.66) 35.8   (7.55)   (†)
Asian 0.5   (0.12)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Pacific Islander   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
American Indian/Alaska Native 1.3   (0.20) 17.8   (3.82) 11.8   (1.89) 5.9 ! (1.93) 63.6   (4.31) 40.2   (5.23) 23.4   (6.07)   (†)
Two or more races 4.6   (0.73) 27.8   (6.66) 20.2   (5.93)   (†) 47.3   (8.96) 23.1 ! (8.18) 24.1   (4.92)   (†)
                                               
Age of child                                                
Less than 48 months 17.3   (1.27) 36.5   (4.48) 16.6   (4.12) 5.9   (1.70) 38.5   (4.06) 11.1   (2.66) 27.4   (3.86) 2.6 ! (1.19)
48 to 52 months 38.5   (1.78) 24.0   (2.76) 16.0   (2.29) 8.8   (1.76) 50.1   (2.73) 16.3   (2.25) 33.7   (2.95) 1.1 ! (0.53)
53 to 57 months 35.5   (1.62) 18.0   (2.16) 15.2   (1.91) 9.1   (1.29) 56.7   (3.13) 16.3   (2.29) 40.4   (2.35)   (†)
58 or more months 8.7   (1.01) 20.7   (4.69) 10.9 ! (3.48) 6.3 ! (3.04) 61.0   (6.17) 12.5 ! (4.62) 48.4   (6.20)   (†)
                                               
Mother's employment status8                                                
Employed full-time 35.5   (1.44) 14.1   (2.64) 16.1   (2.10) 12.6   (1.89) 55.4   (2.85) 14.0   (2.58) 41.4   (2.57)   (†)
Employed part-time 20.9   (1.12) 19.3   (2.94) 19.3   (3.53) 11.3   (2.61) 48.4   (4.04) 9.9 ! (3.08) 38.6   (3.87) 1.7 ! (0.85)
Looking for work 6.2   (0.91) 24.2   (6.38) 20.1 ! (7.08) 7.0 ! (2.57) 48.5   (7.77) 26.9   (8.03) 21.6   (5.06)   (†)
Not in labor force 36.5   (1.29) 36.3   (2.42) 11.4   (1.86) 2.6 ! (0.88) 48.8   (2.31) 17.6   (2.42) 31.3   (3.38) 0.9 ! (0.39)
No mother in household 0.9 ! (0.38)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
                                               
Parents' highest level                                                
of education                                                
Less than high school 8.5   (0.94) 34.1   (5.68) 21.0 ! (7.32)   (†) 43.9   (8.64) 24.8 ! (7.85) 19.1   (4.31)   (†)
High school completion 26.7   (2.03) 25.8   (2.77) 16.4   (2.40) 6.5 ! (2.07) 49.2   (3.79) 24.2   (3.36) 25.1   (2.81) 2.0 ! (0.74)
Some college/vocational 37.5   (1.89) 24.3   (2.81) 18.3   (3.05) 8.2   (1.25) 48.2   (2.62) 14.4   (2.53) 33.7   (2.86)   (†)
Bachelor's degree 15.2   (1.10) 20.4   (3.64) 9.9   (2.62) 11.2   (2.96) 56.9   (4.03) 5.0 ! (2.46) 51.9   (4.46)   (†)
Any graduate education 12.2   (1.14) 14.6   (3.22) 7.2 ! (2.55) 13.4   (3.72) 63.9   (4.56)   (†) 60.6   (4.93)   (†)
                                               
Poverty status9                                                
Below poverty threshold 23.6   (1.37) 28.0   (2.34) 16.5   (2.95) 4.4   (1.13) 50.3   (4.01) 28.7   (3.55) 21.6   (2.24)   (†)
At or above poverty threshold 76.4   (1.37) 22.4   (1.87) 15.1   (1.54) 9.4   (1.25) 51.7   (1.66) 10.9   (1.66) 40.8   (2.18) 1.5   (0.34)
                                               
Socioeconomic status10                                                
Lowest 20 percent 16.2   (0.97) 28.1   (3.41) 20.1   (4.25) 3.6 ! (1.62) 46.8   (4.48) 29.6   (4.38) 17.1   (3.27)   (†)
Middle 60 percent 70.4   (1.37) 25.0   (1.97) 15.9   (1.72) 8.2   (1.39) 49.8   (1.93) 14.5   (2.05) 35.3   (2.33) 1.1   (0.27)
Highest 20 percent 13.4   (1.29) 11.8   (3.06) 7.3 ! (2.57) 13.4   (3.38) 65.2   (4.67)   (†) 64.2   (5.04)   (†)
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 Distribution of weighted Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort survey population with data on primary care arrangements.
2 Primary type of care arrangement is the type of nonparental care in which the child spent the most hours.
3 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a relative (excluding parents).
4 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a person unrelated to the child.
5 Care provided in places such as early learning centers, nursery schools, and preschools.
6 Children who spent an equal amount of time in each of two or more arrangements.
7 Distribution of weighted Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort survey population between 44 and 65 months of age with data on primary care arrangements.
8 Mothers who reported working at least 35 hours per week are defined as employed full time, while those who reported working less than 35 hours per week are defined as employed part time. Those neither employed nor looking for work are not in the labor force.
9 Poverty status based on Census Bureau guidelines from 2002 (for 2-year-olds in 2003-04) and 2005 (for 4-year-olds in 2005-06), which identify a dollar amount determined to meet a household's needs, given its size and composition. In 2002, a family of four was considered to live below the poverty threshold if its income was less than or equal to $18,392 (in current dollars).
10 Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score based on parental education and occupations, and family income.
NOTE: Data are based on a representative sample of children born in 2001. Estimates for children at about 2 years of age weighted by W2R0. Estimates for children at about 4 years of age weighted by W3R0. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. For details on urban-centric locale categories, such as rural, see http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/ruraled/page2. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and suppression of cells that do not meet standards.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort 9-month–Kindergarten Restricted-Use Data File and Electronic Codebook.
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