Skip Navigation
small NCES header image

Methodology and Technical Notes - Confidentiality and Disclosure Limitations

Return to Methodology and Technical Notes

Confidentiality analyses for the United States were designed to provide reasonable assurance that public-use data files issued by the PISA consortium would not allow identification of individual U.S. schools or students when compared against other public-use data collections. Disclosure limitations included identifying and masking potential disclosure risk to PISA schools and including an additional measure of uncertainty to school and student identification through random swapping of data elements within the student and school file. Swapping was designed to not significantly affect estimates of means and variances for the whole sample or reported subgroups (Krenzke 2006).

Would you like to help us improve our products and website by taking a short survey?

YES, I would like to take the survey


No Thanks

The survey consists of a few short questions and takes less than one minute to complete.
National Center for Education Statistics -
U.S. Department of Education