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Trends in Student Performance: International Trends in Average Scores


Mathematics Literacy

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Table T2. Average scores and changes in average scores of 15-year-old students on PISA mathematics literacy scale, by education system: 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012
Education system Average score   Change in average score
2003   2006   2009   2012   2012-2003   2012-2006   2012-2009
Score s.e.   Score s.e.   Score s.e.   Score s.e.   Score s.e.   Score s.e.   Score s.e.
OECD trend score1 500 0.6   498 0.5   499 0.6   496 0.5   -3 *   0.9   -1     0.9   -3 *   0.9
Shanghai-China     600 2.8   613 3.3               13 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 4.9
Singapore     562 1.4   573 1.3               11 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 3.0
Hong Kong-China 550 4.5   547 2.7   555 2.7   561 3.2   11     5.9   14 *   4.7   7     4.8
Chinese Taipei   549 4.1   543 3.4   560 3.3         10     5.7   17 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 5.3
Korea, Republic of 542 3.2   547 3.8   546 4.0   554 4.6   12     5.9   6     6.3   8     6.5
Macao-China 527 2.9   525 1.3   525 0.9   538 1.0   11 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 3.6   13 *   2.6   13 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 2.7
Japan 534 4.0   523 3.3   529 3.3   536 3.6   2     5.7   13 *   5.3   7     5.4
Liechtenstein 536 4.1   525 4.2   536 4.1   535 4.0   -1     6.0   10     6.1   -1     6.1
Switzerland 527 3.4   530 3.2   534 3.3   531 3.0   4     4.9   1     4.9   -3     5.0
Netherlands 538 3.1   531 2.6   526 4.7   523 3.5   -15 *   5.1   -8     4.8   -3     6.3
Estonia   515 2.7   512 2.6   521 2.0         6     4.0   8 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 4.0
Finland 544 1.9   548 2.3   541 2.2   519 1.9   -26 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 3.3   -30 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 3.7   -22 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 3.7
Canada 532 1.8   527 2.0   527 1.6   518 1.8   -14 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 3.2   -9 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 3.4   -9 *   3.4
Poland 490 2.5   495 2.4   495 2.8   518 3.6   27 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 4.8   22 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 4.8   23 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 5.1
Belgium 529 2.3   520 3.0   515 2.3   515 2.1   -15 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 3.7   -6     4.2   -1     3.9
Germany 503 3.3   504 3.9   513 2.9   514 2.9   11 *   4.8   10     5.3   1     4.7
Vietnam       511 4.8                  
Austria 506 3.3   505 3.7   496 2.7   506 2.7   #       #       10 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 4.4
Australia 524 2.1   520 2.2   514 2.5   504 1.6   -20 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 3.3   -16 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 3.5   -10 *   3.8
Ireland 503 2.4   501 2.8   487 2.5   501 2.2   -1     3.8   #       14 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 4.1
Slovenia   504 1.0   501 1.2   501 1.2         -3     2.6   #    
Denmark 514 2.7   513 2.6   503 2.6   500 2.3   -14 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 4.1   -13 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 4.1   -3     4.2
New Zealand 523 2.3   522 2.4   519 2.3   500 2.2   -24 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 3.7   -22 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 3.9   -20 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 3.9
Czech Republic 516 3.5   510 3.6   493 2.8   499 2.9   -17 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 4.9   -11 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 5.0   6     4.6
France 511 2.5   496 3.2   497 3.1   495 2.5   -16 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 4.0   -1     4.5   -2     4.6
United Kingdom2   495 2.1   492 2.4   494 3.3         -2     4.4   2     4.7
Iceland 515 1.4   506 1.8   507 1.4   493 1.7   -22 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 2.9   -13 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 3.2   -14 *   3.2
Latvia 483 3.7   486 3.0   482 3.1   491 2.8   7     5.0   4     4.6   9   Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 4.7
Luxembourg 493 1.0   490 1.1   489 1.2   490 1.1   -3     2.4   #       1     2.8
Norway 495 2.4   490 2.6   498 2.4   489 2.7   -6     4.1   #       -9 *   4.3
Portugal 466 3.4   466 3.1   487 2.9   487 3.8   21 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 5.5   21 *   5.3   #    
Italy 466 3.1   462 2.3   483 1.9   485 2.0   20 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 4.2   24 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 3.7   2     3.6
Spain 485 2.4   480 2.3   483 2.1   484 1.9   -1     3.6   4     3.7   1     3.6
Russian Federation 468 4.2   476 3.9   468 3.3   482 3.0   14 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 5.5   6     5.3   14 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 5.0
Slovak Republic 498 3.3   492 2.8   497 3.1   482 3.4   -17 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 5.2   -10 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 4.9   -15 *   5.1
United States 483 2.9   474 4.0   487 3.6   481 3.6   -2     5.0   7     5.8   -6     5.6
Lithuania   486 2.9   477 2.6   479 2.6         -8   Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 4.5   2     4.4
Sweden 509 2.6   502 2.4   494 2.9   478 2.3   -31 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 3.9   -24 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 3.9   -16 *   4.3
Hungary 490 2.8   491 2.9   490 3.5   477 3.2   -13 *   4.7   -14 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 4.8   -13 *   5.2
Croatia   467 2.4   460 3.1   471 3.5         4     4.7   11 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 5.2
Israel   442 4.3   447 3.3   466 4.7         25 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 6.7   20 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 6.2
Greece 445 3.9   459 3.0   466 3.9   453 2.5   8     5.0   -6     4.4   -13 *   5.2
Serbia, Republic of3   435 3.5   442 2.9   449 3.4         13 *   5.3   6     5.0
Turkey 423 6.7   424 4.9   445 4.4   448 4.8   25 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 8.5   24 *   7.2   3     7.0
Romania   415 4.2   427 3.4   445 3.8         30 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 6.0   17 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 5.6
Cyprus       440 1.1                  
Bulgaria   413 6.1   428 5.9   439 4.0         25 *   7.6   11     7.5
United Arab Emirates       434 2.4                  
Kazakhstan     405 3.0   432 3.0               27 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 4.9
Thailand 417 3.0   417 2.3   419 3.2   427 3.4   10 *   5.0   10 *   4.7   8     5.3
Chile   411 4.6   421 3.1   423 3.1         11     5.9   2     4.9
Malaysia4     404 2.7   421 3.2               16 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 4.8
Mexico 385 3.6   406 2.9   419 1.8   413 1.4   28 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 4.3   8 *   3.8   -5     3.2
Montenegro, Republic of3   399 1.4   403 2.0   410 1.1         10 *   2.7   7 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 3.2
Uruguay 422 3.3   427 2.6   427 2.6   409 2.8   -13 *   4.7   -18 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 4.3   -17 *   4.4
Costa Rica4     409 3.0   407 3.0               -2     4.8
Albania     377 4.0   394 2.0               17 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 5.0
Brazil 356 4.8   370 2.9   386 2.4   391 2.1   35 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 5.6   22 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 4.1   6     3.9
Argentina   381 6.2   388 4.1   388 3.5         7     7.5   #    
Tunisia 359 2.5   365 4.0   371 3.0   388 3.9   29 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 5.0   22 *   5.9   16 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 5.4
Jordan   384 3.3   387 3.7   386 3.1         2     5.0   -1     5.4
Colombia   370 3.8   381 3.2   376 2.9         7     5.2   -4     4.9
Qatar   318 1.0   368 0.7   376 0.8         58 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 2.4   8 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 2.5
Indonesia 360 3.9   391 5.6   371 3.7   375 4.0   15 * Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score 5.9   -16 * Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score 7.2   4     5.9
Peru     365 4.0   368 3.7               3     5.9
Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score Change in average score is greater than the U.S. change in average score.
Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score Change in average score is lower than the U.S. change in average score.
— Not available.
† Not applicable.
# Rounds to zero.
* p<.05. Change in average score is significant at a05 level of statistical significance.
1The OECD trend scores are based on the averages of the 29 OECD countries with comparable data for 2003 and 2012 and with each country weighted equally. The five current OECD members not included in the OECD averages used to report on trends in mathematics literacy include Chile, Estonia, Israel, and Slovenia, which did not participate in 2003; and the United Kingdom, which did not meet PISA response-rate standards for the 2003 assessment. The OECD excluded the data for Austria from the trend analysis in its report (OECD, PISA 2009 Results: Learning Trends - Changes in Student Performance Since 2000 (Volume V), available at http://www.pisa.oecd.org) because of a concern over a data collection issue in 2009; however, after consultation with Austrian officials, NCES kept the Austrian data in the U.S. trend reporting.
2Because of low response rates, 2003 data for the United Kingdom are not presented.
3The Republics of Montenegro and Serbia were a united country under the PISA 2003 assessment.
4For Costa Rica and Malaysia the change between PISA 2009 and PISA 2012 represents change between 2010 and 2012 because these education systems implemented the PISA 2009 assessment in 2010 as part of PISA 2009.
NOTE: Education systems are ordered by 2012 average score. The PISA mathematics framework was revised in 2003. Because of changes in the framework, it is not possible to compare mathematics learning outcomes from PISA 2000 with those from PISA 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. Scores are reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000. All average scores reported as higher or lower than the comparison year are different at the .05 significance level of statistical significance. Standard error is noted by s.e. Italics indicate non-OECD countries and education systems.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2003, 2006, 2009, 2012.

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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education