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Reading Literacy: Student Economic, Cultural, and Social Status (ESCS)


Average Scores

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Table R8. Average scores of 15-year-old students on PISA reading literacy scale, by national quarters of the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) and education system: 2012
Education system National quarters of the ESCS index      
Bottom quarter   Second quarter   Third quarter   Top quarter   All students
Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.
OECD average 456 0.6   486 0.5   509 0.6   542 0.6   496 0.5
Albania         394 3.2
Argentina 358 3.9   386 4.8   406 4.8   442 4.9   396 3.7
Australia 471 2.2   501 2.1   530 2.4   557 2.5   512 1.6
Austria 444 4.0   479 4.0   502 3.9   537 3.9   490 2.8
Belgium 457 3.7   493 3.4   531 2.6   566 2.9   509 2.3
Brazil 380 2.1   397 2.8   416 3.2   452 3.8   410 2.1
Bulgaria 368 6.5   420 5.6   452 6.7   510 6.4   436 6.0
Canada 494 2.4   517 2.4   534 2.2   562 2.9   523 1.9
Chile 400 3.8   430 3.5   449 3.0   490 3.7   441 2.9
Chinese Taipei 478 4.0   515 3.1   533 3.4   570 3.9   523 3.0
Colombia 366 5.2   390 3.1   412 3.2   448 5.0   403 3.4
Costa Rica 408 4.6   428 3.5   446 3.9   482 4.5   441 3.5
Croatia 453 4.3   474 3.7   485 4.3   529 4.3   485 3.3
Cyprus 411 3.1   443 2.6   457 2.9   496 3.4   449 1.2
Czech Republic 450 4.6   482 3.6   502 3.5   541 4.0   493 2.9
Denmark 455 4.0   486 3.0   512 2.7   540 3.0   496 2.6
Estonia 497 2.8   502 3.3   518 3.1   552 3.2   516 2.0
Finland 494 4.1   515 2.9   535 3.1   559 2.8   524 2.4
France 451 4.4   488 3.9   524 3.5   572 4.3   505 2.8
Germany 467 4.5   504 3.7   535 3.5   556 3.7   508 2.8
Greece 436 4.3   466 4.7   486 4.0   524 3.9   477 3.3
Hong Kong-China 521 4.3   542 3.6   550 2.9   571 4.7   545 2.8
Hungary 438 5.1   479 3.8   497 3.3   545 4.5   488 3.2
Iceland 456 3.6   473 3.2   498 3.2   516 3.5   483 1.8
Indonesia 380 4.6   386 4.5   395 4.4   425 7.6   396 4.2
Ireland 483 4.0   509 3.3   537 3.1   568 2.9   523 2.6
Israel 437 5.6   475 5.3   507 5.7   538 5.6   486 5.0
Italy 452 2.6   480 2.3   504 2.2   528 2.5   490 2.0
Japan 505 5.4   532 3.8   552 4.4   575 5.4   538 3.7
Jordan 379 3.7   392 3.5   411 4.3   427 5.7   399 3.6
Kazakhstan 356 3.2   390 3.7   403 3.2   423 3.5   393 2.7
Korea, Republic of 506 4.2   525 3.7   546 4.3   568 5.3   536 3.9
Latvia 450 5.0   474 3.2   505 3.5   529 4.2   489 2.4
Liechtenstein 477 8.1   528 10.3   524 11.5   541 11.1   516 4.1
Lithuania 443 3.4   464 3.3   490 3.2   514 3.2   477 2.5
Luxembourg 436 3.1   469 2.9   508 3.2   544 3.4   488 1.5
Macao-China 499 2.3   508 2.3   510 2.3   521 2.3   509 0.9
Malaysia 372 3.8   390 3.6   397 4.0   435 5.0   398 3.3
Mexico 391 2.1   417 1.7   429 1.9   460 2.3   424 1.5
Montenegro, Republic of 387 2.9   414 2.7   426 2.4   467 2.8   422 1.2
Netherlands 472 5.0   503 3.8   527 3.9   551 5.0   511 3.5
New Zealand 458 4.0   507 4.1   527 3.4   571 4.3   512 2.4
Norway 475 4.5   497 3.5   520 3.6   538 4.2   504 3.2
Peru 328 3.5   367 3.6   399 4.1   444 7.2   384 4.3
Poland 481 3.9   503 3.0   528 4.0   564 4.3   518 3.1
Portugal 442 4.9   480 4.1   498 3.7   540 3.5   488 3.8
Qatar 348 2.0   388 2.0   412 2.0   415 2.5   388 0.8
Romania 397 4.2   424 3.9   439 4.3   493 5.7   438 4.0
Russian Federation 432 4.1   462 3.4   492 3.4   518 4.7   475 3.0
Serbia, Republic of 417 4.5   436 4.1   447 4.5   488 4.3   446 3.4
Shanghai-China 528 4.3   561 2.8   583 3.1   608 4.3   570 2.9
Singapore 494 2.7   528 2.8   554 2.7   596 3.0   542 1.4
Slovak Republic 397 6.3   456 4.7   478 3.9   524 5.0   463 4.2
Slovenia 441 2.3   467 2.8   491 2.4   531 2.9   481 1.2
Spain 449 3.0   477 2.1   499 2.7   533 2.5   488 1.9
Sweden 446 4.2   476 3.8   503 4.1   526 4.1   483 3.0
Switzerland 465 3.3   500 2.9   523 3.0   553 3.2   509 2.6
Thailand 419 3.8   429 2.8   439 3.2   479 5.4   441 3.1
Tunisia 375 5.5   390 4.9   413 4.7   442 6.8   404 4.5
Turkey 443 4.2   465 3.9   473 4.7   523 6.1   475 4.2
United Arab Emirates 404 2.7   437 2.7   461 2.9   470 4.4   442 2.5
United Kingdom 463 4.0   485 4.4   514 3.6   550 3.6   499 3.5
United States 461 4.2   480 4.1   510 3.9   546 4.2   498 3.7
Uruguay 370 4.3   394 4.0   414 4.0   472 5.0   411 3.2
Vietnam 477 5.8   500 4.9   515 3.8   541 6.0   508 4.4
                             
U.S. state education systems                            
Connecticut 467 7.4   502 7.0   546 6.1   579 7.2   521 6.5
Florida 459 5.8   483 6.9   489 7.0   543 7.4   492 6.1
Massachusetts 480 7.6   503 5.1   545 7.2   583 6.5   527 6.1
― Not available.
† Not applicable.
NOTE: The PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) was created using student reports on parental occupation, the highest level of parental education, and an index of home possessions related to family wealth, home educational resources and possessions related to “classical” culture in the family home. The home possessions relating to "classical" culture in the family home included possessions such as works of classical literature, books of poetry, and works of art (e.g. paintings). The OECD average is the average of the national averages of the OECD member countries, with each country weighted equally. Standard error is noted by s.e. Italics indicate non-OECD countries and education systems. Results for Connecticut, Florida, and Massachusetts are for public school students only.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2012.

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