Skip Navigation
small NCES header image

Problem Solving: Student Economic, Cultural, and Social Status (ESCS)


Average Scores

Excel File Excel Download

Table PS4. Average scores of 15-year-old students on PISA problem solving scale, by national quarters of the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) and education system: 2012
Education system National quarters of the ESCS index      
Bottom quarter   Second quarter   Third quarter   Top quarter   All students
Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.
OECD average (PS) 462 1.0   490 0.8   512 0.9   541 0.9   500 0.7
Australia 487 2.6   512 2.4   538 3.1   560 2.5   523 1.9
Austria 467 4.7   495 5.4   518 4.8   547 4.9   506 3.6
Belgium 458 4.3   495 4.0   529 3.3   557 3.5   508 2.5
Brazil 385 6.2   420 6.8   436 6.8   477 7.0   428 4.7
Bulgaria 343 8.3   387 5.9   416 6.6   465 6.8   402 5.1
Canada 503 3.4   518 2.8   534 3.3   555 3.2   526 2.4
Chile 405 5.9   439 4.6   454 4.0   493 4.8   448 3.7
Chinese Taipei 498 4.9   528 4.0   542 3.2   570 3.8   534 2.9
Colombia 359 4.5   388 4.5   406 4.3   442 5.9   399 3.5
Croatia 434 5.1   458 4.4   469 4.9   504 5.5   466 3.9
Cyprus 406 3.1   438 3.3   450 3.0   488 3.0   445 1.4
Czech Republic 460 4.9   500 5.0   519 4.1   557 4.2   509 3.1
Denmark 465 5.2   488 4.0   511 3.7   529 3.5   497 2.9
Estonia 495 3.8   503 3.8   516 4.1   547 3.4   515 2.5
Finland 495 3.7   513 3.0   531 3.7   556 3.0   523 2.3
France 472 6.0   497 4.1   521 4.4   559 4.1   511 3.4
Germany 469 5.6   500 4.5   539 4.4   555 4.2   509 3.6
Hong Kong-China 517 5.5   533 5.0   546 4.1   567 6.9   540 3.9
Hungary 397 7.2   445 4.8   474 5.2   520 6.4   459 4.0
Ireland 460 4.7   489 4.2   510 3.5   538 4.8   498 3.2
Israel 393 5.7   437 6.9   477 7.1   513 7.1   454 5.5
Italy 481 5.6   500 4.4   524 5.3   535 5.6   510 4.0
Japan 526 5.3   547 3.6   562 4.0   576 4.2   552 3.1
Korea, Republic of 534 5.3   552 5.1   571 5.2   588 5.5   561 4.3
Macao-China 530 2.4   540 2.3   545 2.0   548 2.3   540 1.0
Malaysia 385 4.2   409 3.8   427 4.8   469 5.4   422 3.5
Montenegro, Republic of 371 2.5   400 3.0   410 3.2   447 3.1   407 1.2
Netherlands 473 6.7   502 5.3   523 5.3   549 6.3   511 4.4
Norway 473 4.5   495 4.1   518 4.7   533 5.0   503 3.3
Poland 441 5.5   467 5.2   491 5.8   526 6.3   481 4.4
Portugal 449 4.7   485 4.5   504 4.7   543 5.8   494 3.6
Russian Federation 450 3.9   472 4.3   502 4.2   531 6.0   489 3.4
Serbia, Republic of 437 5.0   461 4.1   476 4.5   519 3.5   473 3.1
Shanghai-China 492 6.5   528 3.8   548 3.6   578 5.1   536 3.3
Singapore 522 2.6   552 2.9   575 2.8   602 2.5   562 1.2
Slovak Republic 424 7.5   477 4.2   495 4.2   541 5.5   483 3.6
Slovenia 434 2.6   463 3.4   488 3.4   522 2.8   476 1.5
Spain 437 7.2   469 4.3   485 4.9   517 6.6   477 4.1
Sweden 460 3.7   482 4.1   507 4.7   521 4.5   491 2.9
Turkey 419 4.3   443 4.0   459 5.1   497 6.2   454 4.0
United Arab Emirates 367 4.2   403 2.9   432 3.6   445 4.2   411 2.8
United Kingdom 486 5.4   505 5.5   531 5.0   555 4.6   517 4.2
United States 473 5.7   493 4.7   518 5.1   549 4.7   508 3.9
Uruguay 358 4.6   384 4.8   410 5.2   463 5.2   403 3.5
NOTE: The PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) was created using student reports on parental occupation, the highest level of parental education, and an index of home possessions related to family wealth, home educational resources and possessions related to “classical” culture in the family home. The home possessions relating to "classical" culture in the family home included possessions such as works of classical literature, books of poetry, and works of art (e.g. paintings). The OECD average (PS) is the average of the national percentages of the 28 OECD member countries that participated in the problem solving (PS) assessment, with each country weighted equally. The following OECD countries did not participate in the problem solving assessment: Greece, Iceland, Luxembourg, Mexico, New Zealand, and Switzerland. Standard error is noted by s.e. Italics indicate non-OECD countries and education systems.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2012.

Would you like to help us improve our products and website by taking a short survey?

YES, I would like to take the survey

or

No Thanks

The survey consists of a few short questions and takes less than one minute to complete.
National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education