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Table D.1.09. IEA: Percentage distribution and average achievement scores of fourth-grade students reading for information outside of school as reported in PIRLS, by reading frequency and country: 2006

    Every day or almost every day   Once or twice a week   Once or twice a month   Never or almost never
    2006 percent of students   Average achievement   Difference in percent from 2001   2006 percent of students   Average achievement   Difference in percent from 2001   2006 percent of students   Average achievement   Difference in percent from 2001   2006 percent of students   Average achievement   Difference in percent from 2001
Countries   Percent s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.     Percent s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.     Percent s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.     Percent s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.
International average   16 0.1   492 0.8         43 0.2   503 0.6         29 0.1   506 0.7         12 0.1   496 1.3    
                                                                                         
South Africa   36 1.1   302 6.0         45 0.7   307 5.8         16 0.8   317 10.1         3 0.5   304 19.7      
Macedonia, Rep. of   33 1.3   440 5.4         48 1.1   453 4.4         16 1.2   447 6.3         2 0.3     #    
Qatar   33 0.6   359 1.9         49 0.6   355 1.7         15 0.4   359 3.5         3 0.2   345 7.6      
Kuwait   30 1.4   342 5.6         50 1.1   343 4.5         16 0.9   329 6.4         3 0.6   295 15.3      
Trinidad and Tobago   29 1.4   440 6.2         48 1.2   435 5.9         18 0.8   444 5.8         4 0.5   414 13.6      
                                                                                         
Israel   21 0.8   499 5.4         44 1.0   510 4.0         25 1.0   532 3.9         10 0.6   549 5.1   2 ! 0.8
Poland   21 0.8   523 2.9         46 0.9   522 3.3         27 0.7   518 3.4         6 0.5   508 6.8      
Slovak Republic   20 1.0   527 4.2         50 0.9   539 2.5   #       24 0.8   530 4.3         6 0.6   492 15.3      
Moldova, Rep. of   19 1.0   497 4.0         50 1.3   503 3.9   5 ! 2.3     24 1.3   500 4.3   -5 ! 2.1   7 0.9   492 8.7   #    
Indonesia   19 0.9   409 5.4         50 1.1   409 4.4         25 1.0   407 5.1         6 0.9   391 8.0      
                                                                                         
Hungary   19 0.9   533 4.6   #       50 0.9   552 3.5   4 ! 1.3   25 0.8   562 3.4   -3 ! 1.3   7 0.5   558 6.4   #    
Russian Federation   18 0.9   555 4.2         47 0.7   564 3.7         28 0.9   572 3.5         7 0.5   570 5.6   2 ! 0.9  
Slovenia   18 0.6   510 3.3   -5   1.3   49 0.9   519 2.6         26 0.7   533 2.9         8 0.5   524 4.9   2 ! 0.7
Lithuania   18 0.8   530 3.3   -4 ! 1.3   53 0.9   538 1.9         25 0.8   541 2.4   #       4 0.4   533 4.7   3   0.4
Bulgaria   17 1.1   544 6.7   -10   1.6   47 1.5   556 4.5         25 1.2   550 4.3   4 ! 1.6   11 1.3   521 9.6   4 ! 1.6
                                                                                         
Romania   16 1.0   493 6.1         49 1.4   500 5.4         26 1.1   490 5.5         9 1.0   444 12.7   5   1.1
Singapore   16 0.5   558 3.5   -8   0.9   47 0.8   561 3.2   #       28 0.7   561 3.4   4   0.9   8 0.3   538 4.4   4   0.4
Latvia   16 0.8   530 4.8   -3 ! 1.3   48 0.9   541 2.9         29 0.9   547 2.9   4 ! 1.7   7 0.6   545 5.1   3   0.7
Georgia   16 1.3   465 4.5         43 1.3   480 3.0         30 1.5   475 4.7         11 1.0   450 10.3      
Germany   15 0.6   536 3.3         40 0.8   551 3.1         32 0.7   555 2.6   -4 ! 1.0   13 0.7   547 3.7   #    
                                                                                         
Austria   15 0.7   526 3.3         43 1.0   540 2.7         31 0.8   540 2.7         12 0.7   543 4.3      
Spain   14 0.8   501 3.6         45 1.1   513 3.0         30 0.9   518 2.7         10 0.6   514 5.4      
New Zealand   14 0.6   514 4.5         43 0.8   534 2.2         31 0.6   541 2.7   -4 ! 1.3   12 0.7   531 5.2   3 ! 0.9
United States   14 0.6   519 4.5   -4   1.1   43 0.9   538 3.5         33 1.0   553 4.0         10 0.6   546 5.3   3 ! 0.9
Scotland   13 0.8   506 5.2         42 1.0   527 3.6         34 1.0   538 3.0         11 1.0   522 6.7   3 ! 1.2
                                                                                         
Morocco   13 1.2   324 7.5         45 1.6   326 6.8   5 ! 2.4   28 1.4   331 9.1   -5 ! 2.4     14 1.8   310 12.6      
Belgium (French)   13 0.7   480 4.6         40 0.8   498 2.9         31 0.7   506 3.1         16 0.8   510 3.6      
France   12 0.7   506 4.0         40 0.8   520 2.2         34 0.9   527 3.0   -5   1.4   14 0.6   530 3.8   3   0.8
Hong Kong SAR1   12 0.5   554 4.0   4   0.7   43 0.8   569 2.6   #       32 0.8   567 2.5   -8   1.1   13 0.6   550 3.5   4   0.7
Canada, Nova Scotia   12 0.6   523 4.5         42 1.0   545 2.6         33 0.8   552 2.7         13 0.6   533 4.0      
                                                                                         
Iran, Islamic Rep. of   11 0.8   435 6.7       40 1.5   436 3.8         35 1.2   421 4.0         14 1.2   374 9.4   4 ! 1.5
Norway   11 0.7   485 4.7   #       38 0.9   499 2.7   #       34 0.9   503 3.7   -4 ! 1.5   17 0.8   497 3.9   3 ! 1.3
Italy   11 0.8   539 6.3         40 0.8   554 3.1         36 1.0   554 3.7         14 0.8   552 4.8      
Canada, Ontario   11 0.9   532 6.2   -3 ! 1.2   40 1.5   554 3.1         35 1.2   558 3.3         14 1.0   564 4.5   4   1.1
Canada, Alberta   10 0.6   543 4.2         43 0.9   560 2.7         34 0.8   566 2.8         13 0.6   565 4.2      
                                                                                         
England   10 0.7   502 5.5         44 1.0   537 2.8   #       35 1.1   556 3.2         11 0.7   537 5.8   3 ! 0.9
Canada, Quebec   10 0.6   520 3.9         37 1.1   532 3.3   -6   1.5   35 1.1   536 3.6   #       18 1.0   539 4.2   8   1.2
Sweden   9 0.7   539 6.0   2 ! 0.8   33 1.0   550 2.8         36 0.8   553 2.7   -6   1.1   23 1.1   548 3.0      
Canada, British Columbia   9 0.6   541 5.3         39 1.0   557 3.3         38 0.8   564 3.1         14 0.7   561 4.2      
Chinese Taipei   8 0.4   538 3.6         38 0.8   538 2.2         38 0.8   536 2.8         16 0.7   529 3.5      
                                                                                         
Iceland   8 0.4   496 4.9         33 0.8   511 2.0   #       36 0.7   515 2.1   -4   1.1   22 0.7   514 2.2   4   0.9
Denmark   6 0.5   526 5.7         30 1.0   539 3.1         40 0.9   549 2.6         25 1.1   557 3.7    
Luxembourg   6 0.3   542 4.1         33 0.6   555 2.0         41 0.6   560 1.6         20 0.4   559 2.3    
Belgium (Flemish)   4 0.4   532 5.7         29 1.0   544 2.8         42 0.8   549 2.3         25 0.8   550 2.1    
Netherlands   4 0.4   528 6.0   #       25 1.0   542 2.3         38 0.9   552 2.1   -5   1.3   34 1.2   549 2.2   4 ! 1.5
— Not available.
† Not applicable.
# Rounds to zero.
! Interpret data with caution, estimates are unstable. The coefficient of variation is greater than or equal to .3 but less than .5.
‡ Reporting standards not met. Either data are insufficient to report achievement or the coefficient of variation is greater than or equal to .5.
∆ 2006 percent significantly higher.
▼ 2006 percent significantly lower.
1 Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China.
NOTE: The data are based on students' responses on how often they read to find out about things they want to learn and how often they read the following things outside of school: books that explain things, magazines, newspapers, directions or instructions, and brochures and catalogues. Average is computed on a 4-point scale: Never or almost never = 1, Once or twice a month = 2, Once or twice a week = 3, and Every day or almost every day = 4. Every day or almost every day indicates an average of greater than 3.25 through 4. Once or twice a week indicates an average of greater than 2.5 through 3.25. Once or twice a month indicates an average of greater than 1.75 through 2.5. Never or almost never indicates an average of 1 to less than 1.75. Please note that “I read brochures and catalogs” is a new item added to the index in 2006, and is not included in the 2001 index calculations. The international average does not include the Canadian provinces. The primary education systems of the Russian Federation and Slovenia underwent structural changes. (In 2001, the Russian sample contained both third- and fourth-grade students; in 2006, however, all students were in fourth grade. Slovenia is in transition towards having all children begin school at an earlier age so that instead of having three years of primary schooling, as was the case in 2001, they all will have four years. This transition was not complete in 2006, however.) Data for Canada, Ontario include only public schools. Differences are significant at the p<0.05 level. Standard error is noted by s.e.
SOURCE: Data from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), 2006. Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Kennedy, A.M., and Foy, P. (2007). PIRLS 2006 International Report, exhibit 4.4. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education