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Table D.1.08. IEA: Percentage distribution and average achievement scores of fourth-grade students reading stories or novels outside of school as reported in PIRLS, by reading frequency and country: 2006


  Every day or almost every day   Once or twice a week   Once or twice a month   Never or almost never
  2006 percent of students   Average achievement   Difference in percent from 2001   2006 percent of students   Average achievement   Difference in percent from 2001   2006 percent of students   Average achievement   Difference in percent from 2001   2006 percent of students   Average achievement   Difference in percent from 2001
Countries Percent s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.     Percent s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.     Percent s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.     Percent s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.
International average 32 0.2   512 0.6         31 0.2   503 0.6         18 0.1   500 0.7         19 0.2   479 0.9    
                                                                                       
Canada, British Columbia 57 1.2   572 2.5         26 0.7   552 3.2         11 0.7   539 4.1         6 0.6   511 7.0      
Canada, Nova Scotia 54 1.0   557 2.4         26 0.8   534 2.9         12 0.5   531 3.9         8 0.5   497 6.3      
Canada, Alberta 53 1.2   577 2.7         27 0.9   549 3.5         12 0.7   544 3.4         8 0.6   523 4.9      
Canada, Ontario 50 1.7   566 3.2   #       28 1.4   548 3.0   #       14 0.9   544 5.1   #       7 0.7   520 7.5      
Russian Federation 50 1.1   568 3.6   -6   1.9   32 0.7   565 3.6   3 ! 1.3   11 0.6   563 4.9   2 ! 0.9   7 0.6   548 5.4      
                                                                                       
Trinidad and Tobago 47 1.4   452 5.8         31 1.3   431 6.6         10 0.6   420 7.1         11 1.0   408 7.2      
New Zealand 46 1.1   556 2.3   #       29 0.8   526 2.6         14 0.6   513 3.9         10 0.6   473 4.2   #    
Israel 46 1.0   532 4.2   16   1.5   32 0.8   513 3.8   6   1.3   15 0.6   495 4.8         7 0.5   481 7.2   -22   1.4
Netherlands 45 1.0   558 2.0         28 0.7   542 1.8         13 0.6   540 2.2   #       14 0.7   531 3.2   #    
Singapore 44 1.1   579 3.0   -9   1.6   33 0.8   555 3.1   6   1.1   15 0.5   534 3.5   4   0.7   8 0.4   505 4.6      
                                                                                       
Macedonia, Rep. of 44 1.5   442 5.1         35 1.3   449 5.0         16 1.1   452 7.1         5 0.4   445 10.1      
Canada, Quebec 44 1.4   546 3.3   5 ! 1.9   28 0.8   530 3.1         16 0.9   528 3.4         12 0.9   502 5.1   -4 ! 1.6
Iceland 42 0.9   522 2.4         27 0.8   512 2.3         16 0.6   508 2.8   2 ! 0.8   15 0.6   486 2.9      
South Africa 39 1.0   308 7.0         33 0.6   310 6.7         14 0.5   302 6.6         13 0.7   294 7.2      
Qatar 37 0.6   361 2.1         37 0.6   359 2.0         15 0.4   347 3.4         10 0.4   342 4.4      
                                                                                       
United States 36 1.3   558 4.6         28 0.8   541 3.6         18 0.7   539 3.6         18 0.9   509 3.2   -3 ! 1.3  
Hungary 36 1.2   554 4.6         34 0.9   553 3.5         20 0.9   553 2.9         10 0.7   535 6.7      
Hong Kong SAR1 36 0.9   575 2.4   16   1.3   40 0.8   568 2.6   -5   1.2   17 0.7   550 3.3   -6   1.0   7 0.5   518 5.0   -5   0.8
Scotland 35 1.3   555 4.2   -5 ! 1.8   29 0.9   525 3.3         18 0.9   521 3.8   3 ! 1.2   17 1.2   484 4.8   5 ! 1.5
Kuwait 33 1.2   351 5.2         40 1.0   337 4.9         19 0.8   326 5.8         8 0.7   312 8.9      
                                                                                       
England 33 1.2   573 3.9   -5 ! 1.8   30 1.0   535 3.2         20 0.7   536 4.2   3 ! 1.0   17 0.8   492 3.5   3 ! 1.2
Germany 32 0.7   566 3.0   5   1.0   21 0.8   547 3.7   #       16 0.5   550 3.6         31 0.9   535 2.6   -6   1.4
France 32 1.0   533 2.9         30 0.8   524 2.3         19 0.6   522 2.8         19 0.9   501 2.9      
Georgia 32 1.5   467 3.5         32 1.3   479 3.5         20 1.4   484 6.8         17 1.2   459 5.6      
Belgium (Flemish) 31 0.9   557 2.8         34 0.9   546 2.4         21 0.8   545 3.0         14 0.8   530 3.3      
                                                                                       
Spain 31 1.1   511 3.7         24 0.8   515 3.0         15 0.6   523 3.7         29 1.0   508 3.2      
Poland 31 1.1   524 3.3         37 1.2   524 3.1         21 0.8   516 3.7         11 0.8   504 4.6      
Sweden 30 0.9   564 3.2   -3 ! 1.3   33 0.9   549 3.4         22 0.8   546 2.7   #       15 0.8   529 3.4   3 ! 1.0
Chinese Taipei 30 0.8   549 2.7         36 0.9   541 2.4         20 0.7   531 3.2         15 0.7   505 3.1      
Denmark 29 1.1   558 3.2         26 0.8   548 3.2         20 0.8   551 3.0         25 1.1   529 3.0      
                                                                                       
Belgium (French) 28 0.9   509 3.7         27 0.8   498 3.5         18 0.7   507 3.3         27 0.9   488 3.0      
Lithuania 28 1.0   542 2.5         30 0.9   538 2.5         19 0.7   540 2.6         23 1.0   528 2.4      
Morocco 27 1.2   334 6.2   9   1.6   36 1.5   334 6.3         21 1.5   327 10.2   -4 ! 1.9     16 2.5   282 16.8   -8 ! 3.5
Romania 27 1.4   491 6.1   7   1.9   34 1.3   497 5.8   -4 ! 1.9   23 1.3   503 5.8   -4 ! 1.8   16 1.1   463 9.8      
Iran, Islamic Rep. of 25 0.9   435 5.8         43 1.3   429 3.6         22 0.9   423 4.3         10 1.0   356 9.3   -5 ! 1.6
                                                                                       
Luxembourg 24 0.6   587 2.6         24 0.6   554 2.6         21 0.5   553 2.4         31 0.6   539 1.8      
Norway 23 1.1   509 3.2   5   1.4   24 0.9   501 3.5         21 0.8   503 5.1         32 1.2   488 3.5   -5 ! 1.8
Austria 23 0.9   554 3.0         23 0.8   541 3.0         18 0.7   537 3.8         37 1.1   528 2.6      
Indonesia 22 1.0   399 4.8         36 1.1   413 4.4         16 0.7   411 5.7         25 1.2   406 6.0      
Bulgaria 22 1.0   558 6.4   -6   1.6   26 1.0   555 4.9         23 1.0   555 6.0         29 1.3   529 5.2   7   2.0
                                                                                       
Italy 22 1.2   573 4.4   7   1.4   20 1.0   556 3.3         15 0.8   554 4.1         43 1.3   540 3.3   -7   1.7
Slovenia 21 0.8   536 3.0   -5   1.4   29 0.8   520 3.0         23 0.8   522 3.0   4 ! 1.3   28 0.9   513 2.5   #    
Moldova, Rep. of 19 1.0   499 4.4   -4 ! 1.8   37 1.2   503 3.7   -7 ! 2.2   23 0.9   504 4.1   #       21 1.1   493 4.4   11   1.6
Latvia 19 0.9   558 4.0   -4 ! 1.3   25 1.1   548 3.6         21 0.9   544 3.6         36 1.4   526 2.5   6   1.7
Slovak Republic 15 0.7   540 4.5   #       21 0.9   536 3.5   #       21 0.7   540 3.7         43 1.1   522 3.9    
— Not available.
† Not applicable.
# Rounds to zero.
! Interpret data with caution, estimates are unstable. The coefficient of variation is greater than or equal to .3 but less than .5.
‡ Reporting standards not met. Either data are insufficient to report achievement or the coefficient of variation is greater than or equal to .5.
∆ 2006 percent significantly higher.
▼ 2006 percent significantly lower.
1 Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China.
NOTE: The international average does not include the Canadian provinces. The primary education systems of the Russian Federation and Slovenia underwent structural changes. (In 2001, the Russian sample contained both third- and fourth-grade students; in 2006, however, all students were in fourth grade. Slovenia is in transition towards having all children begin school at an earlier age so that instead of having three years of primary schooling, as was the case in 2001, they all will have four years. This transition was not complete in 2006, however.) Data for Canada, Ontario include only public schools. Differences are significant at the p<0.05 level. Standard error is noted by s.e.
SOURCE: Data from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), 2006. Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Kennedy, A.M., and Foy, P. (2007). PIRLS 2006 International Report, exhibit 4.3. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education