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Table C.4.16. OECD: Public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure and of gross domestic product (GDP), by year, level of education and country: 1995, 2000, 2008

Country Public expenditure1 on education as a percentage of
total public expenditure
  Public expenditure1 on education as a percentage of
GDP
1995   2000   2008   1995   2000   2008
All levels of education combined   All levels of education combined   Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education All levels of education combined   All levels of education combined   All levels of education combined   Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education All levels of education combined
OECD average 11.8   12.7   8.7 3.0 12.9   5.3   5.2   3.6 1.3 5.4
OECD countries                              
Australia 13.8   13.8   9.7 3.0 12.9   4.8   4.4   3.1 1.0 4.2
Austria 10.8   10.7   7.2 3.0 11.2   6.1   5.6   3.5 1.5 5.5
Belgium -   12.0   8.7 2.8 12.9   -   5.9   4.3 1.4 6.5
Canada2 12.7   12.4   7.8 4.5 12.3   6.2   5.1   3.2 1.7 4.9
Chile3 14.5   17.5   12.3 2.2 16.8   2.7   3.9   3.3 0.7 4.6
Czech Republic 8.7   9.5   6.1 2.3 9.5   4.8   4.0   2.6 1.0 4.1
Denmark 12.3   15.4   8.9 4.2 14.9   7.3   8.3   4.6 2.2 7.7
Estonia 13.9   14.8   10.0 2.8 14.2   5.8   5.4   4.0 1.1 5.7
Finland 11.1   12.5   7.9 3.9 12.4   6.8   6.0   3.9 1.9 6.1
France 11.5   11.6   7.0 2.3 10.6   6.3   6.0   3.7 1.2 5.6
Germany 8.6   10.1   6.5 2.8 10.4   4.7   4.5   2.8 1.2 4.6
Greece 5.6   7.3   - - -   2.6   3.4   - - -
Hungary 9.4   10.4   6.3 2.1 10.4   5.2   4.9   3.1 1.0 5.1
Iceland -   15.9   8.6 2.6 13.1   -   6.7   4.9 1.5 7.6
Ireland 12.2   13.7   10.3 3.1 13.4   5.0   4.3   4.4 1.3 5.7
Israel 12.6   13.4   9.2 2.2 13.7   6.5   6.3   4.0 0.9 5.9
Italy 9.0   9.8   6.7 1.7 9.4   4.7   4.5   3.2 0.8 4.6
Japan 9.7   9.5   6.8 1.8 9.4   3.6   3.6   2.5 0.6 3.4
Korea -   16.6   11.0 2.2 15.8   -   3.7   3.4 0.7 4.8
Luxembourg -   -   7.6 - -   -   -   2.8 - -
Mexico 22.2   23.4   13.6 3.9 20.6   4.2   4.4   3.2 0.9 4.9
Netherlands 9.1   11.2   7.7 3.3 11.9   5.1   5.0   3.6 1.5 5.5
New Zealand 16.5   -   11.8 5.5 18.6   5.6   6.7   4.1 1.9 6.4
Norway 15.6   14.0   9.6 5.1 16.0   9.3   7.8   5.4 2.9 9.0
Poland 11.9   12.7   8.0 2.4 11.8   5.2   5.0   3.5 1.0 5.1
Portugal 11.9   12.7   7.9 2.2 11.2   4.9   5.2   3.5 0.9 4.9
Slovak Republic 9.4   7.5   6.6 2.2 10.3   4.6   3.9   2.3 0.8 3.6
Slovenia -   -   7.9 2.7 11.8   -   -   3.5 1.2 5.2
Spain 10.3   10.9   7.1 2.6 11.2   4.6   4.3   2.9 1.1 4.6
Sweden 10.9   13.0   8.3 3.5 13.1   7.1   7.2   4.3 1.8 6.8
Switzerland 13.5   15.6   11.8 4.0 16.7   5.7   5.4   3.8 1.3 5.4
Turkey -   -   - - -   -   -   - - -
United Kingdom 11.4   11.0   8.7 1.7 11.1   5.0   4.3   4.2 0.8 5.4
United States 12.5   14.4   9.7 3.2 13.8   4.7   4.9   3.8 1.3 5.4
Non-OECD member countries                              
Argentina -   -   - - -   -   -   4.0 1.0 5.4
Brazil 11.2   10.5   13.3 2.8 17.4   3.9   3.5   4.2 0.9 5.5
China -   -   - - 16.3   -   -   - - 3.3
India -   -   - - -   -   -   - - -
Indonesia2 -   -   - - -   -   -   3.2 0.3 3.5
Russian Federation -   10.6   - - -   -   2.9   2.0 0.9 4.1
Saudi Arabia -   -   - - -   -   -   - - -
South Africa -   -   - - -   -   -   - - -
— Not available.
1Public expenditure presented in this table includes public subsidies to households for living costs (scholarships and grants to students/households and students loans), which are not spent on educational institutions. Thus the figures presented here exceed those on public spending on institutions found in table C.4.14.
2Year of reference 2007 instead of 2008.
3Year of reference 2009 instead of 2008.
NOTE: Educational institutions are defined as entities that provide instructional services to individuals or education-related services to individuals and other educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary typically refers to any programs that serve to broaden the knowledge of participants who have already completed high school but not entered vocational or higher education (typically lasting between six months and two years). Tertiary education typically refers to vocational training (type B) or higher education (type A), as well as advanced research programs. Apparent differences may not be statistically significant.
SOURCE: Data from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2011). Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2011, table B4.1. Paris: Author.
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education