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Table C.4.12. OECD: Public and private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP), by year, level of education, and country: 1995, 2000, 2008

Country 1995   2000   2008
Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education Total all levels of education   Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education Total all levels of education   Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education Total all levels of education
OECD average     3.8 1.5 5.9
OECD countries                      
Australia 3.4 1.6 5.0   3.5 1.4 5.0   3.6 1.5 5.2
Austria 4.3 1.2 6.2   3.9 1.1 5.5   3.6 1.3 5.4
Belgium - - -   4.1 1.3 6.1   4.4 1.4 6.6
Canada1 4.3 2.1 6.7   3.3 2.3 5.9   3.6 2.5 6.0
Chile2 2.9 1.5 4.6   4.4 2.0 6.7   4.2 2.2 7.1
Czech Republic 3.5 0.9 5.1   2.8 0.8 4.2   2.8 1.2 4.5
Denmark2 4.0 1.6 6.2   4.1 1.6 6.6   4.3 1.7 7.1
Estonia3 4.2 1.0 5.8   3.9 1.0 5.4   3.9 1.3 5.8
Finland 4.0 1.9 6.3   3.6 1.7 5.6   3.8 1.7 5.9
France 4.5 1.4 6.6   4.3 1.3 6.4   3.9 1.4 6.0
Germany 3.4 1.1 5.1   3.3 1.1 4.9   3.0 1.2 4.8
Greece 2.0 0.6 2.6   2.7 0.8 3.6   - - -
Hungary3 3.2 0.8 4.8   2.7 0.8 4.3   3.0 0.9 4.8
Iceland - - -   4.8 1.1 7.1   5.1 1.3 7.9
Ireland 3.8 1.3 5.2   2.9 1.5 4.5   4.1 1.4 5.6
Israel 4.6 1.7 7.8   4.3 1.9 7.6   4.2 1.6 7.3
Italy 3.5 0.7 4.6   3.2 0.9 4.5   3.3 1.0 4.8
Japan 3.1 1.3 5.0   3.0 1.4 5.0   2.8 1.5 4.9
Korea - - -   3.5 2.2 6.1   4.2 2.6 7.6
Luxembourg - - -   - - -   2.9 - -
Mexico 3.7 1.0 5.1   3.5 1.0 5.0   3.7 1.2 5.8
Netherlands 3.4 1.6 5.4   3.4 1.4 5.1   3.7 1.5 5.6
New Zealand 3.5 1.1 4.7   4.4 0.9 5.6   4.5 1.6 6.6
Norway3 5.0 1.9 6.9   5.0 1.6 6.8   5.0 1.7 7.3
Poland 3.6 0.8 5.2   3.9 1.1 5.6   3.6 1.5 5.7
Portugal 3.5 0.9 4.9   3.8 1.0 5.2   3.4 1.3 5.2
Slovak Republic 3.1 0.7 4.6   2.7 0.8 4.1   2.6 0.9 4.0
Slovenia - - -   - - -   3.7 1.1 5.4
Spain 3.8 1.0 5.3   3.2 1.1 4.8   3.1 1.2 5.1
Sweden 4.1 1.5 6.0   4.2 1.6 6.3   4.0 1.6 6.3
Switzerland3 4.6 0.9 6.0   4.2 1.1 5.7   4.3 1.3 5.7
Turkey3 1.2 0.5 1.7   1.8 0.8 2.5   - - -
United Kingdom 3.6 1.1 5.2   3.5 1.0 4.9   4.2 1.2 5.7
United States 3.8 2.3 6.6   3.9 2.7 6.9   4.1 2.7 7.2
Non-OECD member countries                      
Argentina - - -   - - -   4.3 1.2 6.1
Brazil3 2.6 0.7 3.7   2.4 0.7 3.5   4.1 0.8 5.3
China3 - - -   - - -   - - 3.3
India - - -   - - -   - - -
Indonesia1,3 - - -   - - -   2.9 0.3 3.3
Russian Federation3 - - -   1.7 0.5 2.9   2.1 1.5 4.7
Saudi Arabia - - -   - - -   - - -
South Africa - - -   - - -   - - -
— Not available.
‡ Reporting standards not met. Either data are insufficient to report achievement or the coefficient of variation is greater than or equal to5.
1Year of reference 2007 instead of 2008.
2Year of reference 2009 instead of 2008.
3Public expenditure only (for Switzerland, in tertiary education only; for Norway, in primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education only; for Estonia, New Zealand and the Russian Federation, for 1995 and 2000 only).
NOTE: Educational institutions are defined as entities that provide instructional services to individuals or education-related services to individuals and other educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary typically refers to any programs that serve to broaden the knowledge of participants who have already completed high school but not entered vocational or higher education (typically lasting between six months and two years). Tertiary education typically refers to vocational training (type B) or higher education (type A), as well as advanced research programs. Apparent differences may not be statistically significant.
SOURCE: Data from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2011). Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2011, table B2.1. Paris: Author.
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education