Skip Navigation
small NCES header image

Table C.4.02. Total public direct expenditures on education as a percentage of the gross domestic product, by level of education and country: Selected years, 1985 through 2006

  All institutions   Primary and secondary institutions   Higher education institutions
     
Country 1985 1990 1995 2000 1 2004 1 2006 1 2007 1   1985 1990 1995 2000 1 2004 1 2006 1 2007 1   1985 1990 1995 2000 1 2004 1 2006 1 2007 1
OECD average2 4.9 4.9 5.2 5.0 5.0 4.9   3.5 3.5 3.5   3.5   3.5   3.4     1.0 0.9 1.2   1.1   1.1   1.0  
                                                               
OECD countries                                                              
Australia 5.4 4.3 4.5 5.1 4.3 4.3 4.1   3.5 3.2 3.2 3.9   3.5   3.4   3.3     1.7 1.0 1.2 1.2   0.8   0.8   0.8  
Austria 5.6 5.2 5.3 5.8 5.0 5.2 5.2   3.7 3.6 3.8 3.8 3  3.6   3.5   3.5     1.0 1.0 0.9 1.4 3  1.1   1.2   1.2  
Belgium (Flemish) 6.3 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.8 5.8 5.9   4.0 3.4 3.4 3.4 4  4.0   3.9   3.9     1.0 0.8 0.9 1.3 4  1.2   1.2   1.2  
Canada 6.1 5.4 5.8 5.5 4.7 4.8   4.1 3.7 4.0 3.3 5  3.2 5,6  3.3 5,6      2.0 1.5 1.5 2.0 5  1.4 5  1.5 5   
Czech Republic (7) (7) 4.8 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.2   (7) (7) 3.4 3.0 4  2.8   2.7   2.7     (7) (7) 0.7 0.8 4  0.9   0.8   1.0  
                                                               
Denmark 6.2 6.2 6.5 8.4 6.9 6.8 6.7   4.7 4.4 4.2 4.8 3,8  4.2 8  4.4 8  4.3 8    1.2 1.3 1.3 2.5 3,8  1.8 8  1.6 8  1.6 8 
Finland 5.8 6.4 6.6 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.7   4.3 4.2 3.6   3.9   3.8   3.7     1.2 1.7 2.0   1.7   1.7   1.6  
France 5.1 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.5   3.7 4.1 4.1   3.9   3.8   3.7     0.8 1.0 1.0   1.2   1.1   1.1  
Germany9 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.1   2.8 2.9 3.0   2.8   2.8   2.7     1.0 1.0 1.1   1.0   0.9   0.9  
Greece 3.7 3.8 3.3 4.0   2.8 2.7 3,6  2.1 6  2.5 6      0.8 0.9 3  1.1   1.4    
                                                               
Hungary 5.0 4.9 4.9 5.1 5.1 5.1   3.5 3.3 3.1   3.3   3.3   3.2     0.8 0.8 1.0   0.9   0.9   0.9  
Iceland 4.3 4.5 6.0 7.2 7.2 7.2   3.3 3.4 4.7 3  5.2 8  5.2 8  5.1     0.6 0.7 1.1 3  1.1 8  1.1 8  1.0  
Ireland 5.6 4.7 4.7 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.4   4.0 3.3 3.3 3.0 4  3.3   3.3   3.4     0.9 0.9 0.9 1.3 4  1.0   1.0   1.0  
Italy 4.7 5.8 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.6   3.2 4.1 3.2 3.2   3.3   3.2   3.4     0.6 1.0 0.7 0.8   0.7   0.6   0.7  
Japan 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.3   2.9 2.8 2.7 8  2.7 8  2.6 8  2.6 8    0.4 0.4 0.5 8  0.5 8  0.5 8  0.5 8 
                                                               
Korea, Republic of 3.6 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.5   3.0 3.3   3.5   3.4   3.4     0.3 0.7   0.5   0.6   0.6  
Luxembourg 4.3   4.2   3.8 6  3.7 6  3.3 6    0.1        
Mexico 3.2 4.6 4.9 5.2 5.3 4.6   2.2 3.4 3.4   3.6   3.7   3.2     0.7 0.8 0.9   0.9   0.9   0.8  
Netherlands 6.2 5.7 4.6 4.8 4.6 4.6 4.8   4.1 3.6 3.0 3.2   3.3   3.3   3.3     1.5 1.6 1.1 1.3   1.0   1.0   1.1  
New Zealand 5.5 5.3 7.0 5.6 5.2 5.0   3.9 3.8 4.9   4.4   4.0   3.8     1.2 1.1 1.7   0.9   0.9   0.9  
                                                               
Norway 5.1 6.2 6.8 6.7 6.2 5.7 5.4   4.0 4.1 4.1 3.9   4.2   3.8   3.7     0.7 1.1 1.5 1.7   1.4   1.3   1.2  
Poland 5.2 5.2 5.4 5.4 5.2   3.3 3.8 3  3.7   3.7   3.7     0.8 0.8 3  1.1   1.2   0.9  
Portugal 5.4 5.7 5.3 5.3 5.1   4.1 4.2 3  3.8   3.8   3.6     1.0 1.0 3  0.9   0.9   0.9  
Slovak Republic (7) (7) 4.6 4.2 4.0 3.7 3.6   (7) (7) 2.7 3,4  2.6 10  2.5 10  2.4 10    (7) (7) 0.7 3,4  0.9 10  0.7 10  0.8 10 
Spain 3.6 4.2 4.8 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.2   2.9 3.2 3.5 3.1   2.8   2.7   2.7     0.4 0.7 0.8 1.0   0.9   0.9   0.9  
                                                               
Sweden 5.3 6.6 7.4 6.5 6.2 6.2   4.4 4.4 4.9 4  4.5   4.2   4.1     1.0 1.6 2.0 4  1.6   1.5   1.4  
Switzerland 4.9 5.0 5.5 5.4 5.9 5.6 5.4   4.0 3.7 4.1 3.9   3.9   3.9   3.7     0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2   1.6   1.4   1.4  
Turkey 3.2 2.2 3.5 3.8 2.7   2.3 1.4 2.4 3  2.9     1.9     0.9 0.8 1.1 3  0.9     0.8  
United Kingdom 4.9 4.3 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.0 5.2   3.1 3.5 3.8 3.4   3.8   3.8   3.9     1.0 0.7 0.7 1.0   0.8   0.9   0.9  
United States 4.7 5.3 5.0 5.0 5.1 4.8 5.0   3.2 3.8 3.5 3.5 5  3.7   3.5   3.7     1.3 1.4 1.1 1.1 5  1.0   1.0   1.0  
Non-OECD countries                                                              
Brazil 3.9 4.4 4.9     2.9 10  3.3   3.8       0.7 10  0.8   0.8  
Chile 3.5 3.3 3.0     2.8   2.7   2.4       0.3   0.3   0.3  
Estonia (7) (7) 4.9 4.7 4.6   (7) (7)   3.7   3.5   3.4     (7) (7)   0.9   0.9   0.9  
Israel 6.6 6.2 6.2     4.4   4.2   4.1       1.1   1.0   1.0  
Russian Federation (7) (7) 3.4 3.0 3.6 3.8 3.9   (7) (7) 1.9 1.7   2.0   1.9   2.0     (7) (7) 0.7 0.5   0.7   0.8   0.8  
Slovenia (7) (7) 5.4 5.3 5.3   (7) (7)   3.9   3.9   3.8     (7) (7)   1.1   1.0   1.0  
—Not available.
1Includes public subsidies to households attributable for educational institutions and direct expenditure on educational institutions from international sources, except where noted.
2Refers to the mean of the data values for all reporting OECD countries, to which each country reporting data contributes equally. The average is omitted for years in which less than 75 percent of the countries reported data.
3Public subsidies to households not included in public expenditure.
4Direct expenditure on education institutions from international sources exceeds 1.5 percent of all public expenditure.
5Postsecondary non-higher-education included in higher education.
6Preprimary education (for children age 3 and older) is included in primary and secondary education.
7Country did not exist in its current form in the given year.
8Postsecondary non-higher-education included in both secondary and higher education.
9Data for 1985 are for the former West Germany.
10Occupation-specific education corresponding to that offered at the associate's degree level in the United States is included in primary and secondary education.
NOTE: Direct public expenditure on educational services includes both amounts spent directly by governments to hire educational personnel and to procure other resources, and amounts provided by governments to public or private institutions, or households. Figures for 1985 also include transfers and payments to private entities, and thus are not strictly comparable with later figures. Postsecondary non-higher-education is included in primary and secondary education unless otherwise noted. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
SOURCE: Data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Snyder, T.D., and Dillow, S.A. (2010). Digest of Education Statistics 2009 (NCES 2010-013), table 417. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S Department of Education. Washington, DC.
Would you like to help us improve our products and website by taking a short survey?

YES, I would like to take the survey

or

No Thanks

The survey consists of a few short questions and takes less than one minute to complete.
National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education