Table C.3.12b. Average TIMSS eighth-grade mathematics scores, by content and cognitive domain, index of time spent doing mathematics homework, and country: 2007

Mathematics overall   Content domain1   Cognitive domain2   Index of time spent doing mathematics homework (TMH) in a normal school week3
Number   Algebra   Geometry   Data and chance   Knowing   Applying   Reasoning   High TMH   Medium TMH   Low TMH

Jurisdiction Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Percent of students s.e. Average score s.e.   Percent of students s.e. Average score s.e.   Percent of students s.e. Average score s.e.
International average                 27 0.2 458 0.9   53 0.2 457 0.7   20 0.2 441 1.1

Algeria 387 2.1   403 1.7   349 2.4   432 2.1   371 1.7   371 1.9   412 2.0
Armenia4 499 3.5   492 3.1   532 2.5   493 4.1   427 3.9   507 3.1   493 3.8   489 3.8   32 1.2 501 4.6   64 1.2 502 4.4   4 0.5 499 ##
Australia 496 3.9   503 3.7   471 3.7   487 3.6   525 3.2   487 3.3   500 3.4   502 3.3   15 1.1 523 6.6   44 1.5 511 5.2   42 2.0 481 4.6
Bahrain 398 1.6   388 2.0   403 1.8   412 2.1   418 2.1   395 1.7   403 1.9   413 2.1   15 0.7 391 4.0   67 1.1 404 1.8   18 1.0 405 5.2
Bosnia and Herzegovina 456 2.7   451 3.0   475 3.2   451 3.5   437 2.3   478 2.9   440 2.6   452 2.9   24 1.2 466 4.0   51 1.2 458 3.2   25 1.4 459 3.8

Botswana 364 2.3   366 2.9   394 2.2   325 3.2   384 2.6   376 2.1   351 2.6     29 0.9 383 3.0   50 0.9 365 2.8   20 1.0 356 3.4
Bulgaria 464 5.0   458 4.7   476 5.1   468 5.0   440 4.7   477 4.7   458 4.8   455 4.7   36 1.4 475 6.4   48 1.2 472 5.4   15 1.5 458 8.1
Chinese Taipei 598 4.5   577 4.2   617 5.4   592 4.6   566 3.6   594 4.5   592 4.2   591 4.1   31 1.9 628 4.0   46 1.3 613 4.1   23 1.7 563 8.7
Colombia 380 3.6   369 3.5   390 3.1   371 3.3   405 3.8   364 3.4   384 3.7   416 3.3   36 1.3 386 4.5   48 0.9 379 3.8   16 1.0 378 6.0
Cyprus 465 1.6   464 1.6   468 2.0   458 2.7   464 1.6   468 1.6   465 1.8   461 2.1   20 0.9 463 4.1   70 0.9 480 1.8   11 0.7 451 4.8

Czech Republic 504 2.4   511 2.5   484 2.4   498 2.7   512 2.8   502 2.5   504 2.7   500 2.6   5 0.6 473 6.4   46 2.1 504 4.1   49 2.4 511 3.4
Egypt 391 3.6   393 3.1   409 3.3   406 3.4   384 3.1   392 3.6   393 3.6   396 3.4   30 1.1 381 4.6   58 1.1 404 3.6   13 1.0 416 6.8
El Salvador 340 2.8   355 3.0   331 3.7   318 3.7   362 3.0   336 3.1   347 3.3     46 1.4 351 3.2   45 1.0 337 3.3   9 0.7 337 5.2
England5 513 4.8   510 5.0   492 4.6   510 4.4   547 5.0   503 4.0   514 4.9   518 4.3   5 0.6 518 ###   31 1.3 530 6.8   65 1.7 513 4.9
Georgia4,6 410 5.9   421 5.6   421 6.6   409 6.7   373 4.3   427 5.8   401 5.5   389 5.8   34 1.5 432 5.1   62 1.6 414 7.0   4 0.5 372 ##

Ghana 309 4.4   310 3.9   358 3.6   275 4.9   321 3.6   313 4.6   297 4.2     28 1.2 332 5.2   55 1.0 307 4.8   16 1.0 313 5.4
Hong Kong SAR5,7 572 5.8   567 5.6   565 5.6   570 5.5   549 4.7   574 5.4   569 5.9   557 5.6   34 1.6 589 4.9   48 1.2 576 5.9   18 1.4 555 9.0
Hungary 517 3.5   517 3.6   503 3.6   508 3.6   524 3.3   518 3.3   513 3.1   513 3.2   16 0.9 517 5.6   78 1.2 524 3.4   6 1.0 488 8.0
Indonesia 397 3.8   399 3.7   405 3.5   395 4.5   402 3.6   397 4.0   398 3.7   405 3.3   29 1.1 417 5.0   53 0.9 397 4.0   18 0.8 384 5.1
Iran, Islamic Republic of 403 4.1   395 3.9   408 3.9   423 4.4   415 3.5   403 4.1   402 4.2   427 3.5   19 1.4 440 7.7   55 1.6 404 3.8   26 1.5 378 5.0

Israel8 463 3.9   469 3.2   470 3.9   436 4.3   465 4.4   473 3.7   456 4.1   462 4.1   34 1.5 485 4.9   53 1.4 472 4.1   13 0.9 448 9.0
Italy 480 3.0   478 2.8   460 3.2   490 3.1   491 3.1   476 3.0   483 2.9   483 2.8   45 1.3 475 3.1   47 1.2 488 4.1   7 0.6 483 5.5
Japan 570 2.4   551 2.3   559 2.5   573 2.2   573 2.2   560 2.2   565 2.2   568 2.4   8 1.1 566 ###   36 1.3 569 3.3   57 2.0 574 3.3
Jordan 427 4.1   416 4.3   448 4.1   436 3.9   425 3.8   432 4.2   422 4.1   440 3.6   26 1.2 424 5.0   62 1.1 439 4.4   12 0.9 422 7.1
Korea, Republic of 597 2.7   583 2.4   596 3.0   587 2.3   580 2.0   596 2.5   595 2.8   579 2.3   6 0.7 591 5.8   31 1.5 595 3.7   62 1.7 605 3.1

Kuwait9 354 2.3   347 3.1   354 3.0   385 2.8   366 3.5   347 3.1   361 2.7     14 0.7 334 5.1   58 1.3 358 2.7   27 1.5 373 3.9
Lebanon4 449 4.0   454 3.4   465 3.2   462 4.0   407 4.4   464 3.9   448 4.6   429 4.0   25 1.3 445 6.0   67 1.4 460 3.9   8 0.9 434 9.0
Lithuania6 506 2.3   506 2.7   483 2.7   507 2.6   523 2.3   508 2.5   511 2.4   486 2.5   27 1.1 498 2.8   69 1.1 515 2.7   4 0.8 481 8.8
Malaysia 474 5.0   491 5.1   454 4.3   477 5.6   469 4.1   477 4.8   478 4.9   468 3.8   41 1.1 486 5.1   47 1.0 473 5.1   12 0.9 446 9.1
Malta 488 1.2   496 1.3   473 1.4   495 1.1   487 1.4   490 1.6   492 1.0   475 1.3   24 0.7 508 2.8   71 0.7 498 1.7   5 0.3 402 7.4

Norway 469 2.0   488 2.0   425 2.8   459 2.3   505 2.5   458 1.8   477 2.2   475 2.3   25 1.5 466 2.6   53 1.3 474 2.0   22 1.6 473 3.5
Oman 372 3.4   363 2.7   391 3.2   387 3.0   389 3.0   372 3.5   368 3.0   397 3.3   12 0.7 374 5.2   73 1.3 383 3.1   15 1.4 367 7.9
Palestinian National Authority 367 3.5   366 3.2   382 3.4   388 3.8   371 2.9   365 3.8   371 3.4   381 3.5   24 1.1 374 4.4   68 1.2 378 3.8   7 0.8 345 9.1
Qatar 307 1.4   334 1.6   312 1.5   301 1.8   305 1.6   307 1.4   305 1.4     16 0.4 300 3.2   67 0.5 319 1.5   17 0.4 308 4.0
Romania 461 4.1   457 3.5   478 4.6   466 4.0   429 3.7   470 4.2   462 4.0   449 4.6   66 1.3 488 4.0   29 1.3 433 5.1   5 0.5 432 ##

Russian Federation 512 4.1   507 3.8   518 4.5   510 4.1   487 3.8   521 3.9   510 3.7   497 3.6   50 1.3 510 4.4   49 1.2 520 4.2   2 0.3
Saudi Arabia 329 2.9   309 3.3   344 2.8   359 2.6   348 2.2   308 2.6   335 2.3     13 0.8 316 4.8   61 1.8 339 3.3   26 1.8 334 4.4
Scotland5 487 3.7   489 3.7   467 3.7   485 3.9   517 3.5   481 3.3   489 3.7   495 3.3   8 0.7 519 7.2   41 1.8 505 4.4   51 2.1 478 4.3
Serbia6,10 486 3.3   478 2.9   500 3.2   486 3.6   458 3.0   500 3.2   478 3.3   474 3.3   31 1.4 490 5.0   40 1.3 496 4.3   28 1.4 481 4.3
Singapore 593 3.8   597 3.5   579 3.7   578 3.4   574 3.9   581 3.4   593 3.6   579 4.1   42 1.0 616 3.2   43 0.9 595 4.3   16 0.9 547 6.9
Slovenia 501 2.1   502 2.3   488 2.4   499 2.4   511 2.3   500 2.2   503 2.0   496 2.5   20 1.1 503 2.6   64 1.3 505 2.4   16 1.0 498 4.1
Sweden4 491 2.3   507 1.8   456 2.4   472 2.5   526 3.0   478 2.0   497 2.0   490 2.6   3 0.4 461 7.7   35 1.2 490 3.1   62 1.3 498 2.4
Syrian Arab Republic4 395 3.8   393 3.4   406 3.7   417 3.4   387 2.7   393 4.2   401 3.4   396 3.4   44 1.1 408 3.9   48 0.9 399 3.8   8 0.6 409 6.8
Thailand 441 5.0   444 4.8   433 5.0   442 5.3   453 4.1   436 4.8   446 4.7   456 4.4   39 1.4 461 5.6   45 1.1 435 5.4   15 1.0 419 6.7
Tunisia 420 2.4   425 2.6   423 2.6   437 2.6   411 2.3   421 2.6   423 2.4   425 2.3   45 1.3 425 2.8   44 1.0 419 2.9   11 0.9 417 4.1

Turkey 432 4.8   429 4.0   440 5.1   411 5.1   445 4.4   439 4.8   425 4.5   441 4.2   22 1.1 428 5.8   49 1.0 433 5.0   29 1.2 443 5.9
Ukraine 462 3.6   460 3.7   464 3.9   467 3.6   458 3.5   471 3.5   464 3.5   445 3.8   40 1.2 468 4.5   53 1.1 467 3.5   7 0.7 466 6.8
United States5,10 508 2.8   510 2.7   501 2.7   480 2.5   531 2.8   514 2.6   503 2.9   505 2.4   26 1.1 522 3.8   62 1.2 510 3.0   12 1.2 484 4.3
 — Not available. † Not applicable. ‡ Reporting standards not met. 1Number includes whole numbers; fractions and decimals; integers; and ratio, proportion, and percent. Algebra includes patterns; algebraic expressions; and equations/formulas and functions. Geometry includes geometric shapes; geometric measurement; and location and movement. Data and chance includes data organization and representation; data interpretation; and chance. 2Knowing addresses the facts, procedures, and concepts that students need to know to function mathematically. Applying focuses on students' ability to apply knowledge and conceptual understanding in order to solve problems or answer questions. Reasoning goes beyond the cognitive processes involved in solving routine problems to include unfamiliar situations, complex contexts, and multistep problems. 3High TMH indicates more than 30 minutes of mathematics homework assigned 3-4 times per week. Medium TMH includes all possible combinations of responses not included in the high or low categories. Low TMH indicates no more than 30 minutes of mathematics homework assigned no more than 2 times per week. TMH index data are provided by students. 4For the TMH index, data are available for for at least 70 percent but less than 85 percent of the students. 5Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after substitute schools were included. 6National Target Population does not include all of the International Target Population defined by the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). 7Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China. 8National Defined Population covers less than 90 percent of National Target Population (but at least 77 percent). 9Kuwait tested the same cohort of students as other countries, but later in 2007, at the beginning of the next school year. 10National Defined Population covers 90 to 95 percent of National Target Population. NOTE: TIMSS scores are reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000, with the scale average fixed at 500 and the standard deviation fixed at 100. Countries were required to sample students in the grade that corresponded to the end of 8 years of formal schooling, providing that the mean age at the time of testing was at least 13.5 years. Standard errors are noted by s.e. SOURCE: Data from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2007. Snyder, T.D., and Dillow, S.A. (2010). Digest of Education Statistics 2009 (NCES 2010-013), table 406. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S Department of Education. Washington, DC. and Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., and Foy, P. (2008). TIMSS 2007 International Mathematics Report: Findings from IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the Fourth and Eighth Grades, exhibit 4.7. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College