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Table C.1.09. IEA: Percentage distribution and average science achievement of fourth-grade students as reported in PIRLS, by the Index of principals' perception of school safety (PPSS) and countries: 2006
Countries, ordered by high PPSS High PPSS   Medium PPSS   Low PPSS
2006
percent
of students
  Average
achievement
  Difference
in percent
from 2001
  2006
percent
of students
  Average
achievement
  Difference
in percent
from 2001
  2006
percent
of students
  Average
achievement
  Difference
in percent
from 2001
Percent s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.     Percent s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.     Percent   s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.  
International Avg. 60 0.6   503 0.8         32 0.6   495 1.1         7   0.3   442 3      
England 90 1.9   547 3.0         9 2.1   496 5.6         1   #        
Hong Kong SAR 88 2.9   564 2.4         11 2.8   572 7.4   #       1   #     1   #  
Iran, Islamic Rep. of 88 2.2   422 3.7   13 ! 4.5   11 2.2   417 12.4                  
Chinese Taipei 85 3.0   535 2.3         14 2.9   536 4.3         1   #        
Scotland1 85 4.1   531 3.7         15 4.1   517 10.7         #       #    
                                                                   
Belgium (Flemish) 84 3.4   547 2.1         16 3.4   545 6.2         #          
Russian Federation 83 2.5   564 3.7   -9 ! 3.2   17 2.5   570 8.0   10 ! 3.1   #          
Spain 79 3.2   517 2.6         17 2.9   500 7.0         5 ! 1.7   492 21.3      
Canada, British Columbia 79 3.5   563 2.7         21 3.4   542 6.0                  
Moldova, Rep. of 77 3.8   500 3.3         15 3.0   501 8.5         8 ! 2.5   500 14.8      
                                                                   
Singapore 77 #   558 3.0   -7 ! 3.3   23 #   559 7.4   7 ! 3.3   #       #    
New Zealand 77 2.8   541 2.4   12 ! 4.8   23 2.9   507 7.1   -11 ! 4.8            
United States 77 3.7   545 3.7         22 3.3   525 5.7         1   #     1   #  
Italy 76 3.6   553 3.1   13 ! 5.3   14 3.0   556 10.1   -11 ! 4.6   11   2.2   535 10.6      
Canada, Nova Scotia 75 3.4   544 2.6         25 3.4   536 4.4         #          
                                                                   
Georgia 73 3.9   469 3.9         20 3.4   481 7.5         7   1.9   472 10.4      
Canada, Alberta 72 4.0   563 2.7         28 4.0   554 5.1         #          
France 72 3.5   529 2.5         27 3.5   505 5.2                  
Denmark 71 3.8   549 2.8         29 3.8   543 4.2         1   #        
Canada, Quebec 69 4.5   538 3.4         29 4.4   521 4.6   -14 ! 6.9            
                                                                   
Canada, Ontario 68 5.3   555 3.6         31 5.3   553 3.6         1   #        
Austria 67 3.7   541 2.8         31 3.7   533 4.4                  
Macedonia, Rep. of1 66 4.3   448 6.8   #       28 4.0   449 11.7         6 ! 2.3   420 14.6      
Belgium (French) 65 4.7   507 3.5         30 4.5   491 5.5         5 ! 1.9   465 7.4      
Sweden 64 3.8   550 2.6         35 3.9   547 3.9                  
                                                                   
Iceland1 62 0.3   514 1.6   9   0.5   38 0.3   509 2.2   -9   0.5   #       -1   #  
Norway 61 4.8   498 3.2         39 4.8   498 4.2   #       #          
Lithuania 57 4.1   536 2.3         43 4.0   538 3.1         1   #     #    
Bulgaria 55 4.4   553 5.9         40 4.4   537 6.9         5 ! 1.7   556 17.5      
Romania 51 4.3   486 7.5   -36   5.1   36 4.2   489 7.4   24   4.9   14   3.0   505 12.9   12   3.1
                                                                   
Germany 50 3.0   557 2.7   11 ! 4.8   49 3.2   542 3.2   -10 ! 4.8            
Slovenia 47 3.8   521 2.8         51 3.9   522 3.5                  
Latvia 47 3.8   548 3.6   -20   5.7   48 3.9   534 3.9   19 ! 5.8   5 ! 1.9   538 9.4      
Israel 47 4.3   519 7.2         50 4.2   514 4.8             406 16.4      
Qatar1 43 0.2   356 1.9         24 0.2   346 2.3         32   0.2   352 2.4      
                                                                   
Trinidad and Tobago 43 4.0   452 7.5         56 4.0   427 7.7                  
Poland 40 4.4   517 4.1         59 4.3   521 3.0                  
Slovak Republic 37 3.9   531 6.0         57 4.1   530 3.3         6 ! 2.1   534 6.6      
South Africa 36 2.8   326 12.4         51 2.9   296 7.0         13   1.7   263 10.1      
Netherlands1 33 4.3   547 2.9         65 4.4   547 2.3         1   0.1     #    
                                                                   
Hungary 33 4.0   554 5.9         66 4.1   550 3.8         1   #        
Kuwait 32 3.7   341 8.6         42 4.4   332 6.7         26   3.4   304 8.6      
Indonesia 28 3.5   412 7.0         27 3.6   405 8.2         46   4.0   402 6.5      
Morocco1 12 3.4   340 13.8   -18 ! 6.0   15 3.6   326 17.4   -13 ! 6.3   73   4.5   324 9.3   31   7.0
Luxembourg2                              
— Not available.
† Not applicable.
# Rounds to zero.
! Interpret data with caution, estimates are unstable. The coefficient of variation is greater than or equal to .3 but less than .5.
‡ Reporting standards not met. Either data are insufficient to report achievement or the coefficient of variation is greater than or equal to .5.
∆ 2006 percent significantly higher at the p<0.05 level.
▼ 2006 percent significantly lower at the p<0.05 level.
1 Data are available for at least 70 percent but less than 85 percent of students.
2 Primary schools in Luxembourg do not have principals.
NOTE: Index of principals' perception of school safety (PPSS) based on principals’ responses about the degree each was a school problem: classroom disturbances, cheating, profanity, vandalism, theft, intimidation or verbal abuse of other students, and physical conflicts among students. Average is computed on a 4-point scale; Serious problem = 1, Moderate problem = 2, Minor problem = 3, Not a problem = 4. High level indicates an average of greater than 3 through 4. Medium level indicates an average of 2 through 3. Low level indicates an average of 1 to less than 2. The international average does not include the Canadian provinces. The primary education systems of the Russian Federation and Slovenia underwent structural changes. (In 2001, the Russian Federation sample contained both third- and fourth-grade students; in 2006, however, all students were in fourth grade. Slovenia is in transition towards having all children begin school at an earlier age so that instead of having three years of primary schooling, as was the case in 2001, they all will have four years. This transition was not complete in 2006, however.) Standard error is noted by s.e. Detail may not sum to total due to rounding.
SOURCE: Data from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), 2006. Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Kennedy, A.M., and Foy, P. (2007). PIRLS 2006 International Report, exhibit 7.16. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education