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Table C.1.08b. IEA: Percentage distribution and average mathematics achievement scores of eighth-grade students as reported in TIMSS, by the index of principals' perception of school climate (PPSC) and country: 2007
Country, ordered by high PPSC High PPSC   Medium PPSC   Low PPSC
2007
percent
of students
  Average
achievement
  Difference
in percent
from 2003
  2007
percent
of students
  Average
achievement
  Difference
in percent
from 2003
  2007
percent
of students
  Average
achievement
  Difference
in percent
from 2003
Percent   s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.     Percent s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.     Percent   s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.  
International Avg. 16   0.4   473 1.6         68 0.5   450 0.7         16   0.4   428 1.6      
Chinese Taipei 54   4.2   611 5.9   17 ! 5.7   42 4.2   587 6.9   -18 ! 5.7   4 ! 1.6   548 15.7      
Scotland1 35   4.1   503 7.4         59 4.6   476 5.5         6 ! 2.4   495 31.6   #    
Australia 33   3.5   541 8.5         58 4.5   481 4.1         9   2.4   447 9.4      
Indonesia 32   4.0   421 10.2   13 ! 5.1   58 4.4   399 6.6   -13 ! 5.8   11   3.1   391 12.0   #    
United States 32   3.2   533 4.6   -11 ! 4.6   57 3.7   501 3.6         12   2.2   475 9.9      
                                                                     
England1 31   3.9   535 8.8         65 3.9   508 6.3         4 ! 1.7   445 21.1      
Israel 26   3.4   488 9.9         66 4.1   462 5.5         7 ! 2.3   427 16.7      
Egypt 25   3.4   411 7.3         65 3.8   385 4.9         10   2.9   369 12.5      
Korea, Rep. of 25   3.6   601 4.9         66 3.6   597 3.5         9   2.2   590 9.4      
Jordan 25   3.4   456 7.6         67 4.1   423 4.9         8   2.3   373 12.7      
                                                                     
Singapore 24   #   644 6.5   -6   #   70 #   579 4.9   4   #   6   #   538 14.4   2   #
Malaysia 23   3.8   504 11.3         70 3.7   463 5.2   #       6 ! 1.8   477 14.7      
Qatar 23   0.1   302 2.7         70 0.1   310 1.3         7   0.1   286 3.7      
El Salvador 23   3.4   359 6.7         62 4.3   340 4.1         15   3.3   317 6.6      
Thailand 22   3.6   462 13.5         73 4.0   438 5.8         5 ! 1.9   406 22.9      
                                                                     
Malta 21   0.2   527 1.6         61 0.2   503 1.4         18   0.2   389 2.7      
Hong Kong SAR 21   3.6   621 9.8         67 4.4   563 7.4         12   3.2   528 20.0      
Oman 20   3.6   385 7.9         69 4.0   372 4.5         11   2.6   353 12.4      
Ghana 20   3.2   352 8.7         59 4.2   302 6.6         21   3.9   290 7.7      
Bahrain 18   0.2   423 4.9   7   0.2   76 0.2   395 1.5   3   0.3   6   0.1   366 8.2   -9   0.2
                                                                     
Syrian Arab Republic 17   3.1   391 10.2         69 3.3   395 4.6         14   2.8   402 10.7      
Lebanon 17   3.3   478 6.7         66 4.3   452 4.9         18   3.2   408 10.6      
Iran, Islamic Rep. of 16   2.6   458 11.3         64 3.8   400 4.2         20   3.1   369 7.2      
Saudi Arabia 16   3.3   335 6.2         63 4.6   330 3.8         21   3.9   320 7.2      
Kuwait 15   2.7   366 7.4         70 3.8   354 2.8         15   3.1   340 8.2      
                                                                     
Colombia 14   2.6   408 9.7         52 4.5   383 5.1         34   4.8   364 9.1      
Sweden 13   2.5   510 5.8         78 3.6   488 2.5         8 ! 2.6   492 9.6      
Palestinian Nat'l Auth. 11   2.6   390 7.5         78 3.3   366 3.8         11   2.4   354 16.3      
Cyprus 11   0.1   460 4.9   -10   0.2   74 0.2   467 2.0   -2   0.3   16   0.2   458 3.6   12   0.2
Japan 10   2.3   623 12.7   -18   4.2   77 3.2   568 3.0         13   2.7   543 7.6   10 ! 3.0
                                                                     
Hungary 9 ! 2.8   571 13.2         79 4.0   514 4.3         11   3.1   496 7.8      
Bulgaria 9   2.3   525 19.8         63 4.0   467 6.7         27   3.7   435 10.5      
Turkey 8   2.2   498 23.8         55 4.4   444 6.6         36   4.3   398 7.8      
Romania 8   2.1   503 14.5         61 4.2   467 4.9         31   4.1   442 9.3      
Bosnia and Herzegovina 7   2.0   458 6.9         80 3.0   456 3.3         13   2.5   453 5.4      
                                                                     
Algeria 7 ! 2.2   392 7.3         60 4.0   387 2.6         33   3.9   385 2.9      
Italy 7 ! 2.2   484 9.1         77 3.7   481 3.6         16   3.1   468 6.8      
Slovenia 7   2.0   521 8.6         85 3.0   501 2.2         8   2.2   492 9.3   #    
Serbia 7 ! 2.3   476 18.3         81 3.4   489 3.8         13   2.9   473 8.1   -13 ! 4.8
Botswana 6 ! 2.1   380 14.7   5 ! 2.3   58 4.6   366 3.3   27   6.2   35   4.8   354 3.7   -32   6.4
                                                                     
Norway 5 ! 2.0   485 6.6   -8 ! 3.3   89 2.9   469 2.3         6 ! 2.2   462 4.6      
Armenia2 4 ! 1.7   490 13.7         73 3.8   500 4.5         23   3.5   497 6.2      
Ukraine 4 ! 1.6   549 17.1         87 2.9   463 3.9         10   2.4   421 10.0      
Tunisia 3 ! 1.4   468 9.0         44 3.6   428 4.1   14 ! 5.2   54   3.5   412 2.9   -15 ! 5.1
Czech Republic             58 4.0   515 3.4         40   4.2   488 3.9      
                                                                     
Lithuania             94 2.1   507 2.5         4 ! 1.6   477 8.2   #    
Russian Federation 2 ! 0.9           79 3.0   514 4.4   9 ! 4.2   19   3.1   494 6.4   -10 ! 4.2
Georgia #             72 4.3   412 7.4         28   4.3   398 8.8      
Morocco                                
Benchmarking Participants                                                                    
Dubai, UAE2 56   0.7   482 4.3         42 0.7   438 2.7         2   0.3        
Massachusetts, US 44   7.4   564 5.7         45 8.1   550 9.1         10 ! 3.0   481 14.0      
Minnesota, US 44   7.2   529 7.5         53 6.9   540 5.2             442 6.6      
British Columbia, Canada 35   4.9   525 5.5         62 5.0   503 4.7             512 51.5      
Ontario, Canada 34   4.7   539 5.3         57 5.1   511 3.9         9   2.5   499 10.0      
                                                                     
Basque Country, Spain 23   4.8   524 5.6         65 4.9   496 3.3   -13 ! 6.2   12   2.1   465 7.8      
Quebec, Canada 18   3.5   570 9.7         71 4.3   523 4.5         12   3.1   496 6.1      
— Not available.
† Not applicable.
# Rounds to zero.
! Interpret data with caution, estimates are unstable. The coefficient of variation is greater than or equal to .3 but less than .5.
‡ insufficient data to report achievement.
∆ 2007 percent significantly higher at the p<0.05 level.
▼ 2007 percent significantly lower at the p<0.05 level.
1 Indicates data are available for at least 50 percent but less than 70 percent of the students.
2 Indicates data are available for at least 70 percent but less than 85 percent of the students.
NOTE: Index of principals' perception of school climate (PPSC) based on principals’ responses to eight questions about their schools: teachers' job satisfaction; teachers' understanding of the school's curricular goals; teachers' degree of success in implementing the school's curriculum; teachers' expectations for student achievement; parental support for student achievement; parental involvement in school activities; students' regard for school property; and students' desire to do well in school. Average is computed based on a 5-point scale: 1 = very high; 2 = high; 3 = medium; 4 = low; and 5 = very low. High level indicates average is less than or equal to 2. Medium level indicates that average is greater than 2 and less or equal to .3. Low level indicates average is greater than 3. The primary education systems of the Russian Federation and Slovenia underwent structural changes. (In 2001, the Russian Federation sample contained both third- and fourth-grade students; in 2006, however, all students were in fourth grade. Slovenia is in transition towards having all children begin school at an earlier age so that instead of having three years of primary schooling, as was the case in 2001, they all will have four years. This transition was not complete in 2006, however.) Standard error is noted by s.e. Detail may not sum to total due to rounding.
SOURCE: Data from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2007. Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., and Foy, P. (2008). TIMSS 2007 International Mathematics Report: Findings from IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the Fourth and Eighth Grades, exhibit 8.11. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education