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Table C.1.08a. IEA: Percentage distribution and average mathematics achievement scores of fourth-grade students as reported in TIMSS, by the index of principals' perception of school climate (PPSC) and country: 2007
Country, ordered by high PPSC High PPSC   Medium PPSC   Low PPSC
2007
percent
of students
  Average
achievement
  Difference
in percent
from 2003
  2007
percent
of students
  Average
achievement
  Difference
in percent
from 2003
  2007
percent
of students
  Average
achievement
  Difference
in percent
from 2003
Percent   s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.     Percent s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.     Percent   s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.  
International Avg. 22   0.5   487 1.8         68 0.6   471 0.7         10   0.4   441 2.4      
                                                                     
Chinese Taipei 64   3.7   577 2.4         35 3.6   576 3.2                  
Australia 50   4.2   536 4.6         47 3.8   499 4.8                  
New Zealand 49   3.2   513 3.5   #       47 3.0   477 4.0   #       4 ! 1.2   463 10.6   #    
Scotland 48   4.8   500 4.0         51 4.8   490 4.7         #          
United States 48   3.0   547 3.8   #       46 3.1   517 2.8         6   1.5   474 7.4      
                                                                     
England1 45   4.5   550 4.5         47 4.6   538 4.0   -17 ! 6.8   8   2.3   513 8.8   6 ! 2.7
Austria 36   3.1   509 3.7         62 3.1   503 2.2                  
Singapore 36   #   616 6.1         62 #   592 4.5         2   #        
Iran, Islamic Rep. of 31   3.8   416 8.1         64 3.8   396 5.6         5 ! 1.7   396 11.3      
Kazakhstan 29   5.4   556 14.6         65 5.7   547 7.2         5 ! 2.3   538 33.4      
                                                                     
Sweden 27   3.6   510 4.6         66 4.0   503 2.9         6 ! 2.6   461 10.7      
Hong Kong SAR 27   3.9   608 6.1         69 4.2   607 4.3         5 ! 2.0   583 15.4      
El Salvador 26   4.1   356 11.4         60 4.4   318 5.0         14   3.1   328 10.8      
Denmark 26   3.9   538 4.3         69 4.1   519 3.2         5 ! 2.1   509 15.5      
Qatar 24   0.2   323 2.3         69 0.2   287 1.5         7   0.1   304 3.6      
                                                                     
Norway 21   3.8   481 5.1         78 3.9   470 3.2                  
Kuwait 18   2.9   322 10.1         73 3.5   320 4.6         9   2.3   273 10.1      
Slovenia 18   3.7   500 5.5   10 ! 4.2   78 3.8   502 2.1         4 ! 1.7   500 6.0      
Lithuania 15   3.0   542 4.7   -10 ! 4.6   81 3.3   529 2.7         4 ! 1.4   504 9.4      
Morocco1 13   3.8   370 24.6   10 ! 4.0   56 5.0   342 6.8   16 ! 6.9   31   3.9   323 9.7   -25   6.1
                                                                     
Germany 13   2.6   536 3.9         78 3.0   528 2.3         9   2.0   491 10.6      
Hungary 12   3.0   553 9.8         78 4.0   511 3.9         10 ! 3.1   456 13.2      
Colombia 12   2.6   409 11.2         63 5.0   352 6.4         25   4.8   342 10.8      
Italy 12   2.7   505 7.5         81 2.9   507 3.4         8   1.8   505 17.7      
Netherlands1 11   2.6   546 11.1         84 3.1   534 2.7         5 ! 2.1   496 10.4      
                                                                     
Yemen 11   2.7   249 15.1         71 3.8   225 7.2         18   3.6   204 14.2      
Japan 10   2.6   578 6.2         84 3.0   568 2.3         7   1.9   553 5.3      
Russian Federation 9   2.0   569 10.6   5 ! 2.3   83 3.1   543 5.2         8 ! 2.5   522 20.3      
Tunisia 9   2.5   371 15.8   #       66 3.9   334 4.7   17 ! 5.5   25   3.6   290 10.4   -17 ! 5.3
Algeria 7 ! 2.1   374 10.7         65 4.4   378 7.2         28   4.1   373 9.8      
                                                                     
Armenia1 5 ! 1.8   513 23.6         72 3.7   499 5.4         23   3.5   498 9.3      
Slovak Republic 4 ! 1.5   547 13.0         69 3.4   501 3.6         27   3.4   473 10.7      
Ukraine 3 ! 1.3   469 15.9         93 2.3   471 3.0         5 ! 1.9   437 26.4      
Latvia             84 3.2   539 2.4         14   3.2   530 6.5      
Georgia             73 4.0   445 5.2         26   4.1   421 9.1      
                                                                     
Czech Republic 1   #           79 3.8   489 3.0         21   3.9   479 6.0      
Benchmarking Participants                                                                    
Massachusetts, US 70   7.8   579 4.9         30 7.9   557 7.4                  
Dubai, UAE1 60   0.4   444 2.4         37 0.4   445 5.0         4   0.3   426 5.6      
Alberta, Canada 58   4.4   512 3.5         39 4.3   499 3.5             455 18.0      
Minnesota, US 54   9.4   565 10.7         46 9.4   549 9.2         #          
British Columbia, Canada 45   4.6   517 4.4         49 4.3   498 3.6         6 ! 1.8   469 11.6      
                                                                     
Ontario, Canada 41   5.0   522 4.3         50 5.1   510 3.9         9   2.3   471 10.9      
Quebec, Canada 17   3.1   529 6.9         82 3.3   517 3.6   12 ! 5.1            
— Not available.
† Not applicable.
# Rounds to zero.
! Interpret data with caution, estimates are unstable. The coefficient of variation is greater than or equal to .3 but less than .5.
‡ Reporting standards not met. Either data are insufficient to report achievement or the coefficient of variation is greater than or equal to .5.
∆ 2007 percent significantly higher at the p<0.05 level.
▼ 2007 percent significantly lower at the p<0.05 level.
1 Indicates data are available for at least 70 percent but less than 85 percent of the students.
NOTE: Index of principals' perception of school climate (PPSC) based on principals’ responses to eight questions about their schools: teachers' job satisfaction; teachers' understanding of the school's curricular goals; teachers' degree of success in implementing the school's curriculum; teachers' expectations for student achievement; parental support for student achievement; parental involvement in school activities; students' regard for school property; and students' desire to do well in school. Average is computed based on a 5-point scale: 1 = very high; 2 = high; 3 = medium; 4 = low; and 5 = very low. High level indicates average is less than or equal to 2. Medium level indicates that average is greater than 2 and less or equal to .3. Low level indicates average is greater than 3. The primary education systems of the Russian Federation and Slovenia underwent structural changes. (In 2001, the Russian sample contained both third- and fourth-grade students; in 2006, however, all students were in fourth grade. Slovenia is in transition towards having all children begin school at an earlier age so that instead of having three years of primary schooling, as was the case in 2001, they all will have four years. This transition was not complete in 2006, however.) Standard error is noted by s.e. Detail may not sum to total due to rounding.
SOURCE: Data from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2007. Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., and Foy, P. (2008). TIMSS 2007 International Mathematics Report: Findings from IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the Fourth and Eighth Grades, exhibit 8.11. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education