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Table C.1.06. IEA: Percentage distribution and average reading achievement scores of fourth-grade students as reported in PIRLS, by the Index of principals' perception of school climate (PPSC) and country: 2006
Country, ordered by high PPSC High PPSC   Medium PPSC   Low PPSC
2006
percent
of students
  Average
achievement
  Difference
in percent
from 2001
  2006
percent
of students
  Average
achievement
  Difference
in percent
from 2001
  2006
percent
of students
  Average
achievement
  Difference
in percent
from 2001
Percent   s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.     Percent s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.     Percent   s.e.   Score s.e.   Percent   s.e.  
International Avg. 37   0.6   513 1.1         62 0.6   493 0.7         1   0.1        
                                                                     
Iceland1 81   0.3   512 1.5   5   0.4   19 0.3   510 2.7   -5   0.4   #       #    
Scotland1 74   4.0   534 4.0         26 4.0   512 6.0         #       #    
New Zealand 71   3.1   541 2.5         29 3.1   512 5.6         #       #    
Canada, Alberta 70   3.5   569 2.6         30 3.5   540 5.3         #          
United States 70   3.9   549 3.4         30 3.9   520 5.5         #          
                                                                     
England 70   3.7   551 4.1         30 3.7   521 5.7         #          
Chinese Taipei 67   3.9   536 2.5         33 3.9   533 3.8         #          
Canada, Nova Scotia 67   3.8   547 2.5         33 3.8   531 4.5         #          
Singapore 66   #   562 3.5         34 #   552 5.8         #       #    
Belgium (French) 66   4.7   506 3.6         34 4.7   489 5.1         1   #        
                                                                     
Canada, British Columbia 62   4.5   566 3.1         37 4.5   547 4.7         1   #        
Sweden 59   4.4   553 2.8         41 4.4   543 3.5         #       #    
Israel 53   4.1   519 6.7         47 4.1   506 7.0         #          
Norway 51   5.1   500 3.6   -21 ! 6.2   49 5.1   495 3.6   21 ! 6.2   #       #    
Canada, Ontario 50   5.5   558 3.8         50 5.5   550 3.7         #          
                                                                     
Indonesia 48   4.2   409 7.1         52 4.2   401 4.8         #          
Denmark 48   4.4   555 3.3         52 4.4   539 3.6         #          
Iran, Islamic Rep. of 47   4.0   429 5.6         53 4.0   414 5.3                  
Canada, Quebec 46   4.8   543 3.9   -14 ! 6.3   54 4.8   526 3.8   14 ! 6.3   #       #    
Austria 45   4.3   545 3.0         54 4.4   534 3.2         1   #        
                                                                     
Hong Kong SAR 42   3.8   566 3.6         57 3.7   563 2.8                  
Georgia 36   4.4   473 5.4         63 4.4   471 4.5                  
Spain 32   4.2   532 3.6         67 4.0   505 3.5                  
Italy 32   3.8   561 5.5   12 ! 4.7   68 3.8   547 3.4   -12 ! 4.7   #       -1   #  
Qatar 31   0.2   373 2.4         67 0.2   345 1.3         2   0.1        
                                                                     
France 30   4.0   534 3.5         69 4.2   517 3.0                  
Kuwait 30   4.2   349 7.9         70 4.2   318 5.6         1   #        
Germany 28   3.1   557 3.2         71 3.1   546 2.7         1   0.2     1   0.2  
Slovenia 27   3.6   521 4.4         72 3.7   522 2.4         1   #     1   #  
Morocco1 26   3.8   356 11.8   14 ! 4.5   64 4.2   312 8.7   -14 ! 5.7   10   2.6   333 30.8      
                                                                     
Belgium (Flemish) 26   4.0   553 3.1         74 4.0   544 2.5         #          
Netherlands1 24   4.0   544 4.2         76 4.0   548 2.4         #       #    
Russian Federation 22   2.8   577 5.9         78 2.8   561 3.6         #       #    
Macedonia, Rep. of1 22   3.7   479 12.1         78 3.7   437 6.2         #          
Romania 21   3.9   510 9.6   -12 ! 5.8   74 3.9   491 4.6         5 ! 2.2   382 16.3   5 ! 2.2
                                                                     
South Africa 20   2.5   370 17.7         76 2.7   284 5.5         5   1.1   283 20.8      
Trinidad and Tobago 17   3.1   505 9.5         80 3.4   423 5.8             401 40.0      
Poland 16   3.2   522 5.9         84 3.2   519 2.6         #          
Bulgaria 15   2.9   563 8.3   #       80 3.5   547 4.9         5 ! 1.9   509 23.1   -7 ! 3.3
Hungary 11   2.0   573 9.7   -8 ! 3.8   88 2.3   549 3.0                  
                                                                     
Lithuania 10   2.6   547 6.8         90 2.7   536 1.7                  
Latvia 9   2.4   562 8.4   #       91 2.5   539 2.6   #                
Slovak Republic 6   1.8   548 9.4         91 2.2   532 2.9         3 ! 1.4   468 40.8      
Moldova, Rep. of     518 13.4         96 1.6   499 3.2   23   3.9   1   #     1   #  
Luxembourg2                                
— Not available.
† Not applicable.
# Rounds to zero.
! Interpret data with caution, estimates are unstable. The coefficient of variation is greater than or equal to .3 but less than .5.
‡ Reporting standards not met. Either data are insufficient to report achievement or the coefficient of variation is greater than or equal to .5.
∆ 2006 percent significantly higher at the p<0.05 level.
▼ 2006 percent significantly lower at the p<0.05 level.
1 Indicates data are available for at least 70 percent but less than 85 percent of the students.
2 Primary schools in Luxembourg do not have principals.
NOTE: Index of principals' perception of school climate (PPSC) based on principals’ responses to six questions about their schools: teachers’ job satisfaction, teachers’ expectations for student achievement, parental support for student achievement, students’ regard for school property, students’ desire to do well in school, and students’ regard for each other’s welfare. Average is computed on a 5-point scale: Very low = 1, Low = 2, Medium = 3, High = 4, and Very High = 5. Responses for each activity were averaged across each principal. High level indicates an average of greater than 3.67 through 5. Medium level indicates an average of 2.33 through 3.67. Low level indicates an average of 1 to less than 2.33. “Students’ regard for each other’s welfare” was added to the index in PIRLS 2006 and is not included in the 2001 index calculations. The International Average does not include the results from the Canadian provinces. The primary education systems of the Russian Federation and Slovenia underwent structural changes. (In 2001, the Russian Federation sample contained both third- and fourth-grade students; in 2006, however, all students were in fourth grade. Slovenia is in transition towards having all children begin school at an earlier age so that instead of having three years of primary schooling, as was the case in 2001, they all will have four years. This transition was not complete in 2006, however.) Standard error is noted by s.e. Detail may not sum to total due to rounding.
SOURCE: Data from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), 2006. Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Kennedy, A.M., and Foy, P. (2007). PIRLS 2006 International Report, exhibit 7.12. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education