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Table B.4.12. OECD: Percentage distribution of women ages 25-64, by level of earnings, country, and educational attainment: 2009
Country Year Educational attainment Level of earnings Percentage
of the
population
with no
earnings
from work
At or
below
half of
the median
More than
half the
median
but at
or below
the median
More than
the median
but at
or below
1.5 times
the median
More than
1.5 times
the median
but at
or below
2.0 times
the median
More than
twice the
median
All
categories
OECD average Below upper secondary 39.2 48.7 9.7 1.5 0.8 100.0 50.4
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 25.0 46.5 20.5 5.1 2.9 100.0 30.8
    Tertiary-type B education 17.0 35.0 30.7 10.8 6.6 100.0 21.2
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 11.9 23.8 32.2 17.2 14.9 100.0 18.3
    All levels of education 23.0 40.0 22.9 8.0 6.0 100.0 31.8
OECD countries                  
Australia 2009 Below upper secondary 40.6 46.1 11.2 1.8 0.3 100.0 56.1
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 29.6 51.1 16.0 2.1 1.2 100.0 38.4
    Tertiary-type B education 24.0 41.5 26.3 6.6 1.6 100.0 36.1
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 14.5 29.2 31.4 16.0 8.9 100.0 25.4
    All levels of education 26.4 41.0 21.6 7.4 3.6 100.0 40.4
Austria 2009 Below upper secondary 48.5 40.7 8.7 1.2 0.9 100.0 46.0
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 32.5 37.9 20.3 6.3 2.9 100.0 23.9
    Tertiary-type B education 16.7 21.4 27.1 24.8 10.0 100.0 14.1
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 18.6 22.2 23.9 16.1 19.2 100.0 15.4
    All levels of education 32.4 35.4 19.3 8.0 5.0 100.0 27.3
Belgium1 2009 Below upper secondary 23.9 67.4 8.4 0.2 0.1 100.0 63.0
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 10.9 67.9 20.3 0.8 0.1 100.0 33.2
    Tertiary-type B education 2.1 46.4 48.2 2.9 0.4 100.0 18.6
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 1.5 28.8 53.3 12.7 3.8 100.0 22.3
    All levels of education 9.0 54.5 32.0 3.6 0.9 100.0 36.7
Canada 2008 Below upper secondary 55.8 33.3 7.9 1.7 1.3 100.0 48.8
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 38.6 32.5 19.1 5.6 4.2 100.0 23.8
    Tertiary-type B education 29.4 30.0 23.4 10.4 6.8 100.0 14.5
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 21.6 19.3 22.8 15.9 20.4 100.0 12.5
    All levels of education 32.5 28.6 20.4 9.5 9.0 100.0 21.9
Chile
Czech Republic 2009 Below upper secondary 22.5 70.8 6.2 0.4 0.1 100.0
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 8.8 59.0 25.5 4.8 1.9 100.0
    Tertiary-type B education 1.9 44.2 40.8 8.8 4.2 100.0
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 0.5 15.7 49.5 18.0 16.3 100.0
    All levels of education 8.6 52.7 27.9 6.6 4.2 100.0
Denmark 2009 Below upper secondary 26.8 54.3 16.8 1.6 0.6 100.0 37.2
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 16.2 51.4 28.2 3.2 1.0 100.0 15.1
    Tertiary-type B education 13.7 38.3 40.7 5.6 1.8 100.0 10.1
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 12.3 27.9 45.9 9.4 4.4 100.0 7.2
    All levels of education 17.1 42.9 32.7 5.2 2.1 100.0 18.4
Estonia 2009 Below upper secondary 31.4 59.1 8.2 1.0 0.3 100.0 62.5
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 23.2 56.9 14.8 4.0 1.2 100.0 41.8
    Tertiary-type B education
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs
    All levels of education 17.2 45.3 22.8 8.3 6.3 100.0 40.9
Finland 2008 Below upper secondary 31.0 47.2 17.2 3.6 1.0 100.0 42.1
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 25.7 50.1 20.4 2.9 0.9 100.0 19.9
    Tertiary-type B education 13.5 34.4 42.1 7.2 2.8 100.0 12.3
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 16.1 25.6 32.8 15.5 10.1 100.0 9.0
    All levels of education 21.5 40.1 27.5 7.2 3.7 100.0 20.1
France 2007 Below upper secondary 27.7 55.1 13.7 2.4 1.2 100.0 48.2
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 15.9 52.9 23.5 5.7 2.0 100.0 29.8
    Tertiary-type B education 7.4 34.9 38.7 13.8 5.2 100.0 17.7
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 6.6 23.7 38.4 16.8 14.4 100.0 21.1
    All levels of education 15.8 45.2 26.1 8.2 4.7 100.0 32.9
Germany 2009 Below upper secondary 52.6 32.7 12.6 1.8 0.4 100.0 52.1
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 39.1 37.6 17.7 4.5 1.1 100.0 32.8
    Tertiary-type B education 29.1 47.4 15.9 4.8 2.8 100.0 28.6
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 23.2 21.6 31.2 14.2 9.9 100.0 18.2
    All levels of education 35.6 33.6 20.8 6.6 3.3 100.0 32.6
Greece 2009 Below upper secondary 53.1 33.9 10.1 1.8 1.0 100.0 57.2
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 28.8 42.3 20.7 4.9 3.2 100.0 40.6
    Tertiary-type B education 13.0 23.0 32.4 20.9 10.6 100.0 19.6
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 0.0 7.5 31.9 51.3 9.3 100.0 11.5
    All levels of education 29.2 32.8 22.3 10.3 5.4 100.0 40.8
Hungary 2009 Below upper secondary 13.4 75.6 9.2 1.3 0.6 100.0
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 4.0 57.1 23.6 8.8 6.5 100.0
    Tertiary-type B education 2.3 26.8 39.2 16.2 15.5 100.0
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 0.5 11.1 35.6 21.7 31.2 100.0
    All levels of education 4.6 46.5 24.7 11.3 12.9 100.0
Iceland
Ireland 2009 Below upper secondary 53.9 29.6 12.3 1.7 2.5 100.0 60.2
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 35.5 33.8 18.1 8.1 4.5 100.0 36.5
    Tertiary-type B education 21.7 29.8 23.9 15.5 9.2 100.0 29.2
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 14.9 19.2 20.3 23.0 22.5 100.0 14.2
    All levels of education 31.7 28.0 18.5 12.0 9.9 100.0 39.0
Israel 2009 Below upper secondary 45.4 48.0 5.9 0.3 0.4 100.0 79.0
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 27.9 49.2 15.4 4.6 2.9 100.0 44.2
    Tertiary-type B education 25.4 42.7 20.2 5.2 6.5 100.0 29.6
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 14.6 29.8 23.6 13.9 18.1 100.0 20.6
    All levels of education 21.9 39.0 19.8 8.8 10.5 100.0 36.6
Italy 2008 Below upper secondary 35.0 46.0 13.7 2.6 2.8 100.0 62.9
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 13.5 42.5 33.0 5.4 5.6 100.0 35.8
    Tertiary-type B education
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 9.8 27.8 33.9 11.3 17.3 100.0 27.1
    All levels of education 19.4 40.6 27.2 5.7 7.1 100.0 46.6
Japan 2007 Below upper secondary 69.7 24.0 4.1 1.3 0.8 100.0 48.5
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 57.0 29.3 8.7 3.0 2.1 100.0 37.4
    Tertiary-type B education 42.2 30.4 15.6 6.5 5.3 100.0 36.7
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 24.9 27.4 22.9 12.1 12.7 100.0 29.9
    All levels of education 47.5 29.3 13.2 5.5 4.5 100.0 35.9
Korea1 2008 Below upper secondary 42.5 49.2 4.7 2.3 1.2 100.0 59.6
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 27.9 52.5 10.7 4.4 4.5 100.0 57.3
    Tertiary-type B education 15.3 52.9 23.3 6.0 2.5 100.0 45.9
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 9.7 33.5 31.2 15.8 9.8 100.0 44.2
    All levels of education 24.4 46.5 16.9 7.3 4.9 100.0 53.4
Luxembourg 2009 Below upper secondary 47.6 41.6 8.2 2.5 0.1 100.0 46.1
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 27.6 41.1 18.2 9.2 3.8 100.0 36.1
    Tertiary-type B education
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 15.5 20.8 28.9 19.6 15.2 100.0 20.6
    All levels of education 30.1 34.2 18.7 10.6 6.5 100.0 35.6
Mexico
Netherlands 2008 Below upper secondary 56.2 35.4 7.3 0.8 0.3 100.0
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 35.7 43.8 16.7 2.9 0.9 100.0
    Tertiary-type B education 22.1 33.5 28.8 11.6 4.0 100.0
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 16.9 29.3 31.1 14.5 8.2 100.0
    All levels of education 34.0 37.3 19.4 6.2 3.1 100.0
New Zealand 2009 Below upper secondary 31.9 50.0 14.1 2.4 1.5 100.0 38.2
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 26.3 39.9 23.6 6.3 3.9 100.0 26.3
    Tertiary-type B education 22.9 38.1 28.3 7.9 2.8 100.0 23.9
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 15.2 25.6 31.2 16.9 11.1 100.0 20.7
    All levels of education 24.4 38.8 23.6 8.3 4.8 100.0 28.7
Norway 2008 Below upper secondary 35.9 50.4 11.8 1.4 0.5 100.0 28.6
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 22.1 53.9 19.9 3.0 1.1 100.0 12.9
    Tertiary-type B education 8.4 31.1 41.7 12.3 6.5 100.0 3.6
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 12.7 34.7 41.0 7.3 4.3 100.0 5.3
    All levels of education 21.5 45.2 26.6 4.5 2.3 100.0 14.3
Poland 2008 Below upper secondary 26.4 65.3 7.1 1.0 0.2 100.0
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 16.3 53.8 22.6 5.2 2.2 100.0
    Tertiary-type B education
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 2.0 29.7 38.2 16.2 13.8 100.0
    All levels of education 11.0 44.6 28.1 9.4 6.8 100.0
Portugal 2009 Below upper secondary 11.8 64.6 18.0 3.0 2.5 100.0
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 5.2 38.1 31.4 11.2 14.1 100.0
    Tertiary-type B education 3.5 13.9 22.4 19.9 40.3 100.0
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 3.3 11.4 18.8 20.8 45.7 100.0
    All levels of education 8.8 48.8 21.3 8.1 13.0 100.0
Slovak Republic 2009 Below upper secondary 35.5 56.3 7.3 0.7 0.2 100.0
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 21.3 47.0 23.6 5.6 2.5 100.0
    Tertiary-type B education 9.4 23.9 43.0 16.9 6.8 100.0
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 12.0 16.2 32.7 18.0 21.1 100.0
    All levels of education 21.8 39.9 23.8 8.0 6.5 100.0
Slovenia2 2009 Below upper secondary 10.5 82.8 6.0 0.5 0.2 100.0
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 6.8 55.8 28.0 7.1 2.3 100.0
    Tertiary-type B education
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs
    All levels of education 6.6 44.3 24.2 13.9 11.0 100.0
Spain 2008 Below upper secondary 47.2 39.4 10.5 1.9 1.1 100.0 52.4
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 26.8 41.0 21.6 7.6 3.1 100.0 28.7
    Tertiary-type B education 19.5 43.5 26.2 7.1 3.7 100.0 21.7
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 9.7 20.5 25.3 23.3 21.2 100.0 12.8
    All levels of education 27.6 34.1 19.4 10.6 8.3 100.0 35.3
Sweden 2009 Below upper secondary 31.6 50.5 15.8 1.6 0.5 100.0 8.8
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 16.3 53.4 25.3 3.7 1.4 100.0 3.6
    Tertiary-type B education 14.6 36.2 39.4 7.5 2.4 100.0 4.1
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 11.4 30.3 40.7 10.7 6.9 100.0 4.2
    All levels of education 17.0 44.8 29.6 5.7 2.9 100.0 5.2
Switzerland 2008 Below upper secondary 50.3 44.3 4.6 0.4 0.3 100.0 47.9
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 41.2 39.0 16.9 2.3 0.6 100.0 33.7
    Tertiary-type B education 22.9 38.6 25.8 10.3 2.4 100.0 19.9
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 16.4 33.8 31.1 12.3 6.4 100.0 25.2
    All levels of education 35.6 38.5 19.0 4.8 2.0 100.0 33.5
Turkey1
United Kingdom 2009 Below upper secondary 57.6 36.6 4.8 0.7 0.3 100.0 62.0
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 35.4 43.4 15.7 3.6 1.9 100.0 26.5
    Tertiary-type B education 19.0 33.5 31.7 11.2 4.7 100.0 16.9
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 11.2 21.7 30.0 20.8 16.3 100.0 15.2
    All levels of education 28.1 35.4 20.9 9.3 6.3 100.0 28.4
United States 2009 Below upper secondary 60.9 32.0 5.0 1.3 0.8 100.0 51.9
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 33.0 41.8 16.9 5.0 3.3 100.0 30.1
    Tertiary-type B education 25.7 37.6 21.6 9.6 5.5 100.0 20.4
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 17.3 23.5 24.3 16.2 18.8 100.0 18.8
    All levels of education 27.6 32.9 19.6 9.9 10.0 100.0 27.4
Non-OECD member countries                  
Argentina
                   
Brazil 2009 Below upper secondary 45.0 39.9 9.5 3.2 2.4 100.0 46.7
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 13.3 39.9 21.2 11.4 14.2 100.0 33.3
    Tertiary-type B education
    Tertiary-type A and advanced research programs 2.8 9.6 12.8 15.5 59.3 100.0 18.9
    All levels of education 27.6 34.8 13.9 7.9 15.8 100.0 39.2
                   
China
India
Indonesia
Russian Federation
Saudi Arabia
                   
South Africa
— Not available.
† Not applicable.
1 Report earnings net of income tax.
2 Slovenia reports earnings excluding data for individuals in part-time and/or part-year earnings.
NOTE: Tertiary programs refer to post-secondary education and include both higher and vocational education/training. Tertiary-type B programs refer to vocational programs. Tertiary-type A programs refer to academic higher education. If there was no data in 2009, the latest available year was used. Apparent differences may not be statistically significant.
SOURCE: Data from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2011). Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2011, table A8.4c. Paris: Author.

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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education